3Lecture 17Hippocrates, considered the originator of a Greek school of healing, was the first to clearly expound the concept that diseases had natural causes. Various works attributed to him and his school is contained in the Hippocratic Collection, which includes TheHippocratic Oath, Aphorisms, and various medical works. He was an expert in diagnosis, predicting the course of disease. Based on the color and pallor of the ill, disease was considered to be an imbalance of the four “humours”: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile, a concept that was to affect medicine for 2000 years. This concept persists in the following terms that describe distinctive temperaments: sanguine (warm and ardent), phlegmatic (sluggish, apathetic), and bilious (ill humored). Healing emphasis was placed on purges, attempts to purify the body from the illness produced by excesses or imbalance of humors. Hippocrates particularly noted the influence of food and diet on health, recommending moderation. In the work
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