1Lecture 18Roman Agricultural HistoryCarthageThe history of Rome and Carthage are intimately connected. The beginnings of the Carthaginian civilization was a result of Phoenician expansion in the Western Mediterranean expanding to Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, and the north African coast. Its center was Carthage, a city in north Africa opposite Sicily, founded in 814 BCEby inhabitants of Phoenicia; their language was Punic, close to Hebrew.Rome The origins of Rome date to the 7thBCEcentury from Greek expansion. The earliest civilization is Etruscan which reached its peak in 530 to 520 BCE. From 640 to 580 BCEthe major population centers of southern Etruria, and area in the center of modern day Italy, were transformed into cities dominated by Rome. The Roman republic begins in 509 BCE. The Punic wars 264–261 BCE, 218–201 BCE, 149–94 BCEbetween Carthage and Rome led to Roman domination and beginning of Roman Imperialism.One of the earliest writings of agriculture known is by the Phoenician Magoin 350 BCE. Pliny refers to 28 volumes in Punic, now lost.
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