3 Lectures 26 and 27 spice from the East Indies (Indonesia). Cloves were used by those addressing the emperor in the Han dynasty (206–220)]. Arabs began trading directly with East India through Malacca, Sunda and other straits. Constantinople, now Istanbul, founded by Constantine (272–337; Emperor of Rome 324–337), rose as the greatest trading center of the Middle East. Spices (especially cloves, pepper, saffron, nutmeg) became great source of wealth in the 4th to 5th centuries. Middle Ages 476–1492 Commerce between Europe and the East was limited (robbers, poor roads, slow transport, undeveloped shipping). Moslem Arabs now controlled the Spice Trade. Venice became a great sea power and controlled the Adriatic sea and grew rich based on its trade with the East. Famous travelers brought information on spices from the mysterious east. Rabbi Benjamin (1160–1173) visited Europe, Africa, and Asia (from Spain to China). Marco Polo (1254–1324), Venetian, visited the Kublai Khan in China and brought back secret
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