lec33 (dragged) 2

lec33 (dragged) 2 - Lecture 33 3 Archibald Garrod,...

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3 Lecture 33 Archibald Garrod, demonstrated that the human disease alkaptonuria was inherited and, moreover, was due to an alteration in nitrogen metabolism. In a paper in “Lancet,” entitled “Inborn Errors of Metabolism” (and published in book form in 1909), alkaptonuria was established as a gene-induced enzymatic block. This prescient study affected the course of biochemistry but remained unappreciated, if not unread, by early geneticists. The genetic investigations of metabolism from 1900 to 1950 formed a subdiscipline: biochemical genetics. A trend developed toward the study of ever-simpler systems: from human diseases to the color of f ower petals and Drosophila eyes and from there to the nutrient requirements of the bread mold Neurospora . The one-gene one-enzyme model predicted by Garrod was established as dogma in the new catechism of biochemical genetics by G.W. Beadle and E.L. Tatum. The eventual move to bacteria and bacteriophage, with new and powerful techniques for recombinational analysis, changed the concept of the particulate gene. Long considered to be analogous to a bead on a string but F nally shown to be more like a long molecule F rst proposed by Richard Goldschmidt. There turns out to be no structural differentiation between the beads and
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course HIST 302 taught by Professor Jensic during the Summer '10 term at Purdue.

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