recombination of elites. Vegetative propagation is accomplished from offshoots in date, layers in grape, and cuttings in olive and fig and runners in strawberry. Fruit crops that can be easily propagated vegetatively have been considered preadapted for domestication by Zohary and Spiegel Roy (1975). However, many temperate fruits (apple and pear) do not propagate easily by layers or cuttings and are currently multiplied by graftage. Grafting is ancient (Vöchting 1892, Mendel 1953) and Childe (1958) has speculated that it was known before 3000 BCE. Although both root and shoot grafting occurs naturally (Fig. 3), the technology is not obvious and must be considered one of the horticultural craft secrets. We know this because much of the Roman writings on grafting often confuse which species are graft-compatible. Pliny describes a number of ludicrous combinations, such as apple on plane tree suggesting that he was not writing from real experience.
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Centuries, century CE, Olive, olive tree, Childe