how much more shall these, which are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree. The development of graftage must have influenced the movement of temperate fruits, such as the apple, from Central Asia to Europe. Grafting is then a pivotal technology in the history of temperate fruits. Precisely when and where detached scion grafting, which made possible the domestication of a new range of fruit trees, was invented in not clear. Barrie Juniper (pers. commun.) has suggested that the initiation of grafting was outside the area of Mediterranean horticulture and was probably introduced from the east, perhaps Persia. Fruit growing has long been associated with clonal propagation of unique wild seedlings with subsequent evolutionary progress derived from intercrosses of superior clones plus intercrosses with wild races (Zohary and Spiegel-Roy 1975), leading to very high seedling diversity. In a number of species, almond for example, the high diversity of wild clones include segregates that are close to domestic types. This would explain why the ecological adaptation of
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