(Fig. 7). Protection of grapes from birds and thieves is a common feature of the early cultivation of wine, and the construction of walls and towers is associated with vineyards in ancient Israel (Walsh 2000). Various techniques were developed for overwintering, including covering sprawling vines with soil. Grapes were preserved in two ways. The simplest was sun drying, and the dried fruit (raisins) were prized for their concentrated sweetness, and long term storage (Fig. 10). The transformation of grape juice to wine occurs almost naturally but requires anaerobic conditions. The fermentation of juice into wine was probably based on beer technology, an older practice. The culture of grapes (viticulture) and the technology of wine making (enology) are common themes in biblical writings, and became infused in Judaism (Walsh 2000) and Christianity, although drunkenness was frowned upon. Wine was the beverage of choice in ancient Greece and Rome. Wine is prohibited in Islam but grapes and raisins are highly prized. At present wine
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