problem; the higher the parthenocarpy the less the early fruit drop. Parthenocarpy also eliminates the problem of providing pollenizors for pistillate cultivars. Seedless fruits are preferred by the consumer. The developing fruit of are extremely astringent due to soluble tannins in the vacuoles. Non-astringent (NA) cultivars lose astringency naturally during fruit development whereas astringent cultivars (A) retain astringency until maturity. Astringency can be reduced by ethylene application. There is a further classification of cultivars based on the effect of seed on flesh color: pollination variant (PV) and pollination constant (PC). The flesh of PV types becoming dark around the seed whereas the flesh color of PC types in uninfluenced by seed. The four types of fruit (PCNA, PVNA and PCA and PVA are categorized in Table 3. The goal of modern fruit breeding is to obtain parthenocarpic PCNA offspring. Breeding efforts are now facilitated by molecular markers. 6. Kiwifruit.
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