Reading3-2 (dragged) 4

Reading3-2 (dragged) 4 - ex p o s u r e, a n d ex p o se d...

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Unformatted text preview: ex p o s u r e, a n d ex p o se d p o p u la t i o n s g r a d u ally ev o lve d ge n e t ic r esis t a n ce, b u t u n ex p o se d p o p u la t i o n s h a d n ei t h e r t y p e o f r esis t a n ce. I n p r ac t ice, b eca u se 13 o f o u r 14 la r ge d o m es t ic m a mm als we r e E u r asia n s p ecies, ev o l u t i o n o f c r o w d d iseases was c o n ce n t r a t e d i n E u r asia, a n d t h e d iseases b eca m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t age n t s b y w h ic h E u r asia n c o l o n is t s ex p a n d i n g o ve r seas kille d i n d ige n o u s p e o p les o f t h e A m e r icas, A u s t r alia, P acific isla n d s a n d s o u t h e r n Af r ica. T h e a g r i c ul t u r a l e xp a n s i o n s Beca u se s o m e p e o p les ac q u i r e d d o m es t ica t es b ef o r e o t h e r p e o p les c o u l d , a n d b eca u se d o m es t ica t es c o n fe rr e d eve n t u al a d va n t ages s u c h as g u n s, ge r m s a n d s t eel o n t h e p o ssess o r s, t h e h is t o r y o f t h e p as t 10,000 yea r s h as c o n sis t e d o f fa r m e r s r e p laci n g h u n t e r ga t h e r e r s o r less a d va n ce d fa r m e r s. T h ese ag r ic u l t u r al ex p a n si o n s, o r igi n a t i n g m ai n ly f r o m t h e n i n e h o m ela n d s o f ag r ic u l t u r e, r e m a d e ge n e t ic a n d li n g u is t ic m a p s o f t h e w o r l d ( Ta b le 18.2 o f r ef. 1 ) . A m o n g t h e m o s t d isc u sse d ( a n d o f t e n h ig h ly c o n t r o ve r sial ) p o ssi b le exa m p les a r e t h e ex p a n si o n s o f Ba n t u- s p eaki n g fa r m e r s o u t o f t r o p ical Wes t Af r ica o ve r s u b e q u a t o r ial Af r ica 29 , A u s t r o n esia n- s p eaki n g fa r m e r s o u t o f Taiwa n o ve r I sla n d S o u t h eas t Asia 30 , Fe r t ile C r esce n t fa r m e r s o ve r E u r o p e 31,32 , a n d K o r ea n fa r m e r s o ve r Ja p a n 33 . H um a n g e n et i c evo lu t i o n Do m es t ica t i o n h as b ee n b y fa r t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t ca u se o f c h a n ges i n h u m a n ge n e f r e q u e n cies i n t h e p as t 10,000 yea r s. A m o n g t h e m ec h a n is m s r es p o n si b le a r e: t h e s p r ea d o f h u m a n ge n es f r o m t h e ag r ic u l t u r al h o m ela n d s; t h e ev o l u t i o n o f ge n e t ic r esis t a n ce fac t o r s ( i n cl u d i n g t h e AB O b l oo d g r o u p s ) t o o u r n ew c r o w d i n fec t i o u s d is- eases 34,35 ; t h e ev o l u t i o n o f a d u l t- p e r sis t e n t lac t ase i n m ilk- c o n s u m i n...
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