Reading3-2 (dragged) 5

Reading3-2 (dragged) 5 - ge o g r a p h ic a r ea, o r f r...

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Unformatted text preview: ge o g r a p h ic a r ea, o r f r o m m u l t i p le i n d e p e n d e n t d o m es t ica t i o n s a t d iffe r e n t si t es. A n acc u m u la t i o n o f r ece n t evi d e n ce s u gges t s t o m e t h e f o ll o wi n g ge n e r aliza t i o n : t h a t t h e f o r m e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a pp lies t o m o s t m aj o r E u r asia n c r o p s, t h e la tt e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o m a n y N ew W o r l d c r o p s a n d t h e m aj o r E u r asia n lives t o ck s p ecies. A m o n g N ew W o r l d c r o p s, m a n y a r e r e p r ese n t e d b y d is t i n c t b u t r ela t e d s p ecies i n S o u t h A m e r ica, M es o a m e r ica a n d t h e eas t e r n U n i t e d S t a t es, leavi n g n o d o u b t t h a t r ela t e d s p ecies we r e d o m es t ica t- e d i n d e p e n d e n t ly i n t h ese a r eas ( f o r exa m p le, b ea n s, c h e n o p o d s, c h illi p e pp e r s, c o tt o n , s q u as h es, t o b acc o s a n d p o ssi b ly a m a r a n t h s ) . M u l t i p le i n d e p e n d e n t d o m es t ica t i o n s a r e a tt es t e d wi t h i n t h e sa m e s p ecies f o r t h e c h illi p e pp e r s p ecies C a psic u m a nn uu m , c o mm o n b ea n P h a seol u s v u lg a r is , li m a b ea n P h a seol u s l u n a t u s a n d s q u as h s p ecies C u c u r bi t a pepo 4,7,8,42 . C o n ve r sely, t h e eig h t c r o p s t h a t f o u n d e d Fe r t ile C r esce n t ag r ic u l t u r e, wi t h t h e p o ssi b le exce pt i o n o f b a r ley, eac h see m t o d e r ive f r o m o n ly a si n gle d o m es t ica t i o n eve n t 5,9,4345 . Evi d e n ce f o r se p a r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t d o m es t ica t i o n s i n wes t e r n a n d m o r e eas t e r n p a r t s o f E u r asia a r e n o w availa b le f o r all o f t h e b ig five d o m es t ica t e d m a mm als ( c o w, s h ee p , g o a t , p ig a n d h o r se ) , p l u s o n e o f t h e m i n o r n i n e ( wa t e r b u ffal o) 4654 . F o r exa m p le, c o ws we r e d o m es t ica t e d i n d e p e n d e n t ly i n t h e Fe r t ile C r esce n t ( yiel d i n g m o d- e r n h u m p less c o ws ) , i n t h e I n d ia n s u b c o n t i n e n t ( yiel d i n g m o d e r n h u m p e d Ze b u c o ws ) a n d i n No r t h Af r ica 46,50,53 ....
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