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Reading3-2 (dragged) - insigh t re v iew ar t icles 700 N...

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Unformatted text preview: insigh t re v iew ar t icles 700 N AT U RE | V O L 418 | 8 A U G U ST 2002 | www. n a t u r e.c o m / n a t u r e P la n t a n d a n i m al d o m es t ica t i o n is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d evel o p m e n t i n t h e p as t 13,000 yea r s o f h u m a n h is t o r y. I t i n t e r es t s all o f u s, scie n t is t s a n d n o n- scie n t is t s alike, b eca u se i t p r o vi d es m o s t o f o u r f oo d t o d ay, i t was p r e r e q u isi t e t o t h e r ise o f civiliza t i o n , a n d i t t r a n sf o r m e d gl o b al d e m o g r a p h y. Beca u se d o m es t ica t i o n u l t i m a t ely yiel d e d age n t s o f c o n q u es t ( f o r exa m p le, g u n s, ge r m s a n d s t eel ) b u t a r o se i n o n ly a few a r eas o f t h e w o r l d , a n d i n ce r t ai n o f t h o se a r eas ea r lie r t h a n i n o t h e r s, t h e p e o p les w h o t h r o u g h b i o ge o g r a p h ic l u ck fi r s t ac q u i r e d d o m es t ica t es ac q u i r e d e n o r m o u s a d va n t ages o ve r o t h e r p e o p les a n d ex p a n d e d . As a r es u l t o f t h o se r e p lace m e n t s, a b o u t 88 % o f all h u m a n s alive t o d ay s p eak s o m e la n g u age b el o n gi n g t o o n e o r a n o t h e r o f a m e r e seve n la n g u age fa m ilies c o n fi n e d i n t h e ea r ly H o l o ce n e t o t w o s m all a r eas o f E u r asia t h a t h a pp e n e d t o b ec o m e t h e ea r lies t ce n t r es o f d o m es t ica t i o n — t h e Fe r t ile C r esce n t a n d p a r t s o f C h i n a. T h r o u g h t h a t h ea d s t a r t , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h o se t w o a r eas s p r ea d t h ei r la n g u ages a n d ge n es o ve r m u c h o f t h e r es t o f t h e w o r l d . T h o se l o calize d o r igi n s o f d o m es t ica t...
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