7 Reading 34-1 Moslem cities, just as they established themselves in Zanzibar for the same purpose. But under the Arabs the Negro slaves were few in number, generally house servants and rarely acquired for industrial or agri-cultural purposes. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal (1394–1460) was a leader who, despite his sobriquet, rarely left his castle. As far as we know he went overseas only once, and then only to Ceuta, near Tangiers, opposite Gibraltar, a mere 30 miles from the nearest point of Europe. Nevertheless, in many ways he inspired, drove, and directed the whole Portuguese maritime effort in the Atlantic, contributing as much as any single other man to make the Age of Exploration what it became. Joined after his death by the Spaniards, in the century of development which started about 1420, the Portuguese “discovered” most of the world about which they knew nothing at Prince Henry’s birth, nearly all the globe except the Southern Paci f c, more than as much again as the Mediterranean peoples knew when the 15th century began. In 1425 Henry established by proxy a Portuguese settlement in Madeira. By 1432, the f rst sugar cane had been pulped and re f ned in a plant near the modern Funchal, the Europeans having destroyed most of
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Prince Henry, ﬁrst sugar cane, dozen sugar plantations