16 Reading 34-1 unlikely, however faint, which ruined the life of the slave. The introduction of coffee, tea, and cocoa into Europe provided the well-off with an alternative to alcohol for the 1st time in history. Chocolate drinking, coffee houses, and afternoon tea all acquired a gentility far removed from ale house bawdiness, and became 1st a luxurious amenity, then by the 4th quarter of the 17th century a middle-class necessity. But all 3 were crude, often bitter, and unconsumable, it was said, without sugar. From about 1680 the fashion for these hot drinks became a potent factor in the surge in sugar demand and consequent increased production, which progressively raised the sugar trade to the point of importance which it had assumed by 1700. During the 2nd half of the 18th century the temperance cause developed into an important social move-ment, initiated by various Protestant denominations and therefore strongest in northern Europe, in countries such as Britain and the Netherlands. Sugared tea became the respectable alternative to beer or wine long before water was safe to drink without boiling. These changes in social habits signi f cantly increased the
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Barbados, ale house bawdiness, consequent increased production