27 Reading 34-1 sugar, and clothing for masters and slaves. In Cuba, as in all the Caribbean colonies in the late 18th century, only land and fuel were freely available, and the shortage of labor was made acute by disease. Although by the late 18th century malaria was contained by quinine, yellow fever was still rampant and mosquito-spread, and not yet known to be a disease associated with insects. It was endemic in Cuba until the Americans eradicated the dirt and disease in the early 20th century. Slaves provided the labor in the sugar plantations, and whites the artisans. Cuba had hardly any Indians left, if any, in the 18th century. Spaniards from Europe, known as peninsulares , did not stay long, and usu-ally went back to Spain after a tour of duty. If they did stay, and brought up a family in Cuba, the children became known as criollos , or in English, creoles; in English the word has mulatto (half-caste) connotations, but not in Spanish. There were also half-castes, quadroons, and mutations. 33 Spaniards were far less racialist than the English. There were few taboos against intermarriage in the colonies, and the taboos were more of class than of race. Large numbers of Spaniards in Spain itself have some sort of black ancestry, as in other
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