14 Reading 35-1 shippers of the Northeast had relied on an absolutely independent trade between the French West Indian colonies— f ying a successful ribald salute in the direction of the Navigation Acts 14 —and trading in breach of the Indian laws. 15 They made money by smuggling French sugar from the West Indies, turning it into rum, and selling the rum to the Indians; no duty was paid on either the sugar or the rum. Most New Englanders paid scant heed to the government in London. Some Americans had continued to trade with the enemy while their brothers or neighbors or friends were F ghting the French or the Indian allies of the French. Not for them the modern idea of total war—in stony New England, the sea and its trade represented greater wealth than anything on land, and that trade had to continue, war or no war. Massachusetts only needed a spark to ignite it when the tea duty came in, and on 16 December 1773 a body of whites, disguised as Mohawk Indians, boarded 3 ships in Boston harbor and threw the whole cargo into the water. The shores of the tidal reaches of the Charles River were covered with tea leaves. Other parts of the colonies had their own tea parties. Large quantities were destroyed at New York, Philadelphia,
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