Lecture 27 SRR F-2011(1)

Lecture 27 SRR F-2011(1) - Biology 313, Lecture 27 Oct 31,...

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Biol 394 in Spain (3 or 6 credits): ISU on the Mediterranean http://www.language.iastate.edu/valencia/ Biology 313, Lecture 27 Oct 31, 2011 ISU Life Science students at the dolphin show, Valencia Aquarium
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A Refresher on the Double Helix
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DNA double helix: two complementary and antiparallel nucleotide strands The strands are held together by hydrogen bonding (weak) between the bases. A purine always pairs with a pyrimidine (A pairs with T; C pairs with G)
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H bonds A hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen or oxygen. The hydrogen must be covalently bound to another electronegative atom to create the bond.
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DNA double helix: two complementary and antiparallel nucleotide strands Could you draw the hydrogen bonds if asked to draw an AT base pair? a CG base pair?
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Chapter 11 : Chromosome Structure Problems (through Section 11.3 ) Concept Checks (1-7) Worked Problems: 1 Comprehension and Application Questions at end of Chapter: 1-11; 24-27; 29; 31-32
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Chapter 11 : Chromosome Structure and Transposable Elements 1. Tertiary DNA structure: chromosome packing A. Supercoiling B. Bacterial chromosome packing C. Eukaryotic chromosome packing D. Chromosome decondensation: puffs and histones
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Eukaryotic Chromosome Packing: 6 Major Points
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Eukaryotic Chromosome Packing: Point One 1. Packing is dynamic (condensed versus decondensed): a. During DNA replication, transcription: DNA is less condensed (breathes) to provide access to the DNA strands b. Mitosis and Meiosis: Metaphase: very condensed (to move around easily) c. Interphase: less condensed
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Eukaryotic Chromosome Packing: Point Two Two types of chromatin: a. euchromatin : undergoes dynamic packing; it is where transcription occurs b. heterochromatin : permanently condensed; present in centromeres, telomeres; inactivated X; most of Y; little transcription occurs here 2. Chromatin = DNA + protein)
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Eukaryotic Chromosome Packing: Point Three a. Histones (50% of chromosomal proteins) -- 5 types : HI, H2A, H2B, H3, H4 -- contain basic amino acids (+ charged); arg, lys -- bind PO 4 - of DNA: this causes the condensed state -- acetylation causes causes the decondensed state 3. Chromatin proteins
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Eukaryotic Chromosome Packing: Point Three (continued) b. Non-histone proteins (50% of chromosomal proteins) -- structural proteins at centromere (e.g., spindle attachment proteins), at telomere
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Lecture 27 SRR F-2011(1) - Biology 313, Lecture 27 Oct 31,...

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