Nuclear Energy and Radiation - Larry Foulke

Nuclear Energy and Radiation - Larry Foulke - Nuclear...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–27. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Nuclear Energy and Radiation ! October 4, 2008 Larry R. Foulke, Director of Nuclear Programs, University of Pittsburgh Presentation to the Westinghouse Science Honors Institute Nuclear Fission ATOM ELECTRONS NUCLEUS Proton Neutron The Planatary Atom ATOM ELECTRONS NUCLEUS Proton Neutron CHARACTERIZATION Atomic Number Z = #e = #p Atomic Mass Number A = #p + #n NUCLEUS NUCLIDE -- A specific nucleus configuration (#p & #n) X A Z . . . X X X 2 A Z 1 A Z A Z + + ISOTOPE -- Different nucleus configurations (# n) of the same chemical element (#p) ISOTOPES 238 Uranium U 237 Uranium U 236 Uranium U 235 Uranium U 234 Uranium U 233 Uranium U 232 Uranium U 238 92 237 92 236 92 235 92 234 92 233 92 232 92 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ISOTOPES Tritium T or H Deuterium D or H Hydrogen H 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 NUCLEUS NUCLEAR FORCES Overcome Proton Repulsion Strong Short Range MASS DEFECT M Atom < M Constituents E=mc 2 MASS DEFECT M Atom < M Constituents MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE E = mc 2 BINDING ENERGY BE = [ M Atom- M Constituents ]c 2 NUCLEAR FORCES BE 235 U Fission BE/nucleon x 236 nucleons ~ 200 MeV Binding Energy/Nucleon Fission Products MASS AND ENERGY SCALES Atomic Mass Unit 1 amu = 1/12 mass of Carbon-12 atom = 1.660565 x 10 27 kg Electron Volt 1 eV = 1 electron charge x 1 volt = 1.60219 x 10 19 Joules (watt-secs) 1 keV = 1,000 eV 1 MeV = 1,000,000 eV E=mc 2 1 amu = 931.5016 MeV Radioactivity Penetrating Properties of Ionizing Radiation Radioactive Half-Life HALF-LIFE EXAMPLES URANIUM 232 70 yr 233 160 000 yr 234 250 000 yr 235 700 000 000 yr 236 23 000 000 yr 238 4 500 000 000 yr FISSION PRODUCTS Strontium-90 29 yr Cesium-137 30 yr Nuclear Reaction REACTION ENERGY BALANCE E X + M X c 2 + E x + M x c 2 = E Y + M Y c 2 + E y + M y c 2 E i Kinetic Energy of Constituent i M i c 2 Mass Energy of Constituent i [(E Y + E y ) (E X + E x )] = Q-Value [(E Y + E y ) (E X + E x )] = [(M X + M x ) (M Y + M y )]c 2 Q > 0 Exothermal [Exoergic] Reaction Q < 0 Endothermal [Endoergic] Reaction | Q | = Threshold Energy Nuclear Fission NUCLEAR FISSION ADVANTAGES More Neutrons Energy Output Coal 235 U 2500 tons 1 lb 5000 tonnes 1 kg Combustion (C+O 2 CO 2 ) 2-3 eV Fission 200,000,000 eV [200 MeV] Nuclear Fission NUCLEAR FISSION ADVANTAGES More Neutrons Energy Output DISADVANTAGES Fission Radiation Shielding/Heat Removal Shielding/Heat Removal Fission-Product Radiation Shielding/Containment/Heat Shielding/Containment/Heat Removal Removal Waste Management & Disposal Waste Management & Disposal Selected U.S. Annual Waste Generation ComparisonsSelected U....
View Full Document

Page1 / 60

Nuclear Energy and Radiation - Larry Foulke - Nuclear...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 27. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online