bus303 week#2

bus303 week#2 - Business'Ethics'&'Society' BUS'303'...

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Unformatted text preview: Business'Ethics'&'Society' BUS'303' Week'2' Agenda' •  Housekeeping' –  Teams?' –  InformaBonal'Interviews'(Oct'18th)' –  Journals'(Oct'10,'Nov'6,'Dec'4)' •  Thinking'about'knowledge' •  Discussion'QuesBons'BE'Chapter'2' •  Kohlberg'and'Gilligan' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 3 Types'of'Knowledge' 存在于员工个体头脑中的隐性知识,意指 已经可以体现为个体行为中的知识 Formal'Knowledge' •  •  •  •  •  Embodied'Knowledge' Facts' Theories' Algorithms' 运算法则 Principles' Laws' •  Beliefs' •  Pre[theoreBcal' 先于理论的 •  HeurisBcs 启发法: 是人根据一定的经验, ' '' 类推法 Analogies' 在问题空间内进行较少的搜索, •  以达到问题解决的一种方法。启 发法不能保证问题解决的成功, 规范   Norms' • 但这种方法比较省力。 明 •  Explicit' •  Tacit'心照不宣的,默示 •  “Know[What”' 知道是什么的理想知 •  “Know[How”'' 专有技术 识(Know-What),是指 客观的 •  SubjecBve'主观的 •  ObjecBve' 可以观察、感知或许 以数据方式出现的知 •  IntuiBve' 直觉的;凭直觉获知的 •  RaBonal' 合理的 Sept 19/11 识,如统计数字、调查 结果等 Tom Brown 4 Examples:' •  •  •  •  •  •  Riding'a'bicycle' E=MC^2' Saving'a'child'from'falling'into'a'well' A'recipe' The'10'Commandments' Golden'Rule' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 5 Perrow’s'Typology' 类型学(Typology)是战略管理领域研究的重要方 法。由此根据技术战略与经营战略划分的维度, •  Codified'informaBon'编码化信息 –  Few'ExcepBons' 例外, 常 •  Un[codified'informaBon' –  Many'ExcepBons' •  Concrete'informaBon' 具体信息,具体的,实在的 –  the'underlying'structure'is'not'known' •  Abstract'informaBon'' 基底结构 抽象信息 –  the'underlying'structure'is'known' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 6 Uncodified Codified Boisot’s'InformaBon'Space' Formal Knowledge Embodied Knowledge Concrete Abstract Boisot, M. (1995). Information space: A framework for learning in organizations, institutions, and culture. New York: Routledge. Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 7 Catching'the'bus…' •  Using'Experience' –  Eg.'Wait'at'a'bus'stop'unBl'a'bus'arrives' •  Using'a'Schedule' –  Eg.'Make'travel'plans'based'on'informaBon'in'a' published'schedule' •  Using'a'Rule'or'Algorithm' 运算法则:formal knowledge –  Eg.'Bus'leaves'every'7'minutes'beginning'at' 6:30am'unBl'midnight'on'weekdays,'every'10' minutes'beginning'8:00am'on'Weekends'&' Holidays' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 8 Codified Boisot’s'InformaBon'Space' Formal Knowledge Uncodified Schedule' Embodied Knowledge Algorithm' Experience' Concrete Abstract Boisot, M. (1995). Information space: A framework for learning in organizations, institutions, and culture. New York: Routledge. Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 9 CriBcal'Thinking…' 批判性思维 处理 •  CriBcal'thinking'involves'the'manipulaBon'of'formal' knowledge.' •  CriBcal'Thinking'includes'skills'such'as:'comparison,' classificaBon,'sequencing,'cause/effect,'analogies,' deducBve'and'inducBve'reasoning,'forecasBng,' planning,'hypothesizing,'and'criBquing.'' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 10 Codified Kinds'of'knowledge' Uncodified Formal Knowledge Concrete Sept 19/11 Abstract Tom Brown 11 Uncodified Codified PracBce'and'Knowledge' Formal Knowledge Embodied Knowledge Concrete Sept 19/11 Abstract Tom Brown 12 ReflecBve'Thinking' 反省思维 •  ReflecBon'is'a'meaning[making'process'that'moves'a' learner'from'one'experience'into'the'next'with'deeper' understanding'of'its'relaBonships'and'connecBons'to' other'experiences'and'ideas.'严密的 •  ReflecBon'is'a'systemaBc,'rigorous,'disciplined'way'of' thinking'with'its'roots'in'scienBfic'inquiry' •  ReflecBon'needs'to'happen'in'community,'in' interacBon'with'others' •  ReflecBon'requires'amtudes'that'value'the'personal' and'intellectual'growth'of'oneself'and'others' 智力的 Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 13 ReflecBon' •  ReflecBon'about'acBon' –  How'we'make'sense'of'events'in'the'past' •  ReflecBon'in'acBon'(Donald'Schön)' –  How'we'make'sense'of'events'as'they'occur' •  …through'codifying'and'abstracBng'' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 14 Codified ReflecBon'and'Knowledge' Formal Knowledge Uncodified Limit'of'Embodied' Knowledge' Embodied Knowledge Concrete Sept 19/11 Abstract Tom Brown 15 Codified ReflecBon'and'PracBce' Formal Knowledge Uncodified Limit'of'Embodied' Knowledge' Embodied Knowledge Concrete Sept 19/11 Abstract Tom Brown 16 Codified LocaBng'PracBcal'Wisdom' Formal Knowledge Limit'of'Embodied' Knowledge' Uncodified Practical Wisdom 实践智慧 Embodied Knowledge Concrete Sept 19/11 Abstract Tom Brown 17 Discussion'QuesBons'BE'2' 1.  Would'Adam'Smith'agree'with'George' SBgler’s'descripBon'of'The$Wealth$of$ Na,ons?' 2.  What'is'the'difference'between'self[interest' and'greed?' 3.  At'what'stage'do'you'situate'yourself'in' Kohlberg’s'Theory'of'Moral'Development?' 用亚当·斯密的话来说,每个人“只想得到自己的利益”,但是又好象“被一只无形的 手牵着去实现一种他根本无意要实现的目的,……他们促进社会的利益,其效果 往往比他们真正想要实现的还要好。” Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 18 Kohlberg’s'Theory'of'Cogni8ve'Moral'Development' Level'One:' Pre?Conven8onal'Morality' Level'Two:' Conven8onal'Morality' Level'Three:' Post?Conven8onal'Morality' Sept 19/11 1.  Punishment'and'Obedience' 2.  Individual'Instrumental'Purpose'and' Exchange' (The'individual'does'what'is'expected'of'them'by' others)' 1.  Mutual'Interpersonal'ExpectaBons,' RelaBonships'and'Conformity' 2.  Law'and'Order'OrientaBon' 1.  Prior'Rights,'Social'Contract,'or'UBlity' 2.  Universal'Ethical'Principles' Tom Brown 20 Kohlberg’s'Research' •  Women'scored'lower'on'Kohlberg’s'scale' •  Kohlberg’s'conclusion:'Women'are'less' morally'developed'than'men.' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 22 Gilligan’s'Conclusion' •  Gilligan'was'a'student'of'Kohlberg'' •  She'disagreed'with'Kohlberg’s'theory'because' she'believed'it'did'not'reflect'women’s'reality' •  Gilligan’s'conclusion:'Women'demonstrated'a' more'sophisBcated'understanding'of'ethics.' •  Gilligan'created'her'own'theory'of'moral' development'with'three'stages'and'two' transiBons.' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 23 Gilligan’s'Theory' The'Ethics'of'Care' Pre[ConvenBonal' Goal'is'Individual'survival' TransiBon'from'selfishness'to'responsibility'for'others$ ConvenBonal' Self[sacrifice'is'goodness' TransiBon'from'goodness'to'truth'that'she'is'a'person'too$ Post[convenBonal' Sept 19/11 Principle'of'non[violence:'do'not'hurt'self'or' others' Tom Brown 24 Ethics'of'Rights'Vs'Ethics'of'Care' •  View'of'humans:' –  Autonomous,'separate,' independent'actors' –  Interdependent'actors'within'a'social' web' •  Moral'Goal:' –  Fairness,'imparBality,'obedience'to' rules' •  Moral'Problem' –  Conflicts'of'rights' •  Values:' –  Rights,'duBes,'fairness,'due' process,'equal'protecBon' –  Avoid'harm,'maintain'relaBonships' –  Conflict'of'responsibiliBes' –  Harmony,'empathy,'community,' responsiveness,'integraBon' •  Focus:' –  Results' –  Process' •  Driving'Social'Force' –  CompeBBon,'winning' Ethics'of'Rights'(“Male”)' Sept 19/11 –  CooperaBon,'compromise' Ethics'of'Care'(“Female”)' Tom Brown 25 Six'Central'Forces'AffecBng'Decision' Making '' •  •  •  •  •  •  Authority' Distancing'from'Responsibility' Tunnel'Vision' 见识狭窄,井蛙之见 RaBonalizaBon' External'Pressure' CommunicaBon'Breakdown' Sept 19/11 Tom Brown 交流失败 26 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course BUS 303 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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