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Lecture 6 - Functions and Onto

# Lecture 6 - Functions and Onto - Functions and...

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Functions and Onto (Computer Science Notes) Functions We’ll be using a broader range of functions, whose input and/or output values may be integers, strings, characters, and the like. Suppose that A and B are sets, then a function f from A to B (shorthand: f : A → B) is an assignment of exactly one element of B (i.e. the output value) to each element of A (i.e. the input value) A is called the domain of f and B is called the co-domain If x is an element of A, then the value f(x) is also known as the image of x, output is an image We can write out the elements of A as x1, x2, . . . , xn. When constructing a function f : A → B, we have p ways to choose the output value for x1 The choice of f(x1) doesn’t affect our possible choices for f(x2): we also have p choices for that value we have p^n possible ways to construct our function f For any set A, the identity function idA maps each value in A to itself. That is, idA : A → A and idA(x) = x When Are Functions Equal? To be equal, two functions must have the same domain, the same co-domain, and assign the same output value to each input value • f: N → N such that f(x) = 2x. • f: R → R such that f(x) = 2x Describe quite different functions, even though they are based on the same equation What Isn’t A Function? For each input value, a function must provide one and only one output value, so if there exist an input with no output it’s not a function or if one input has two outputs it’s not a function Images and Onto The image of the function f: A → B is the set of values produced when f is applied to all elements of A. That is, the image is f(A) = {f(x) : x A} For example, suppose M = {a, b, c, d}, N = {1, 2, 3, 4}, and our function g: M → N is as in the following diagram. Then g(A) = {1, 3, 4} A 1 B 1 2 C 3 D 4 A function f : A → B is onto (or subjective) if its image is its whole co-domain y B, x A, f(x) = y

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Lecture 6 - Functions and Onto - Functions and...

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