Lab8 - 8 Bone Tissue Objectives In this chapter we will study methods used to diagnose bone disorders three noncancerous bone osteomyelitis and

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47 8 Bone Tissue Objectives In this chapter we will study methods used to diagnose bone disorders; three noncancerous bone diseases—osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, and osteochondrosis; and four forms of bone cancer—osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and myeloma. Diagnosing Bone Disorders As living organs, bones are subject not only to fractures but also to several other diseases. The signs and symptoms of a disorder of the bone tissue per se can be difficult to distinguish from those of other skeletomuscular diseases, thus testing the diagnostic skill of a physician. Some of the procedures described in this chapter of the clinical manual also apply to chapters 9 and 10, which deal with the skeleton as a whole and the joints, respectively. Pain is the most common symptom of a bone disorder, but patients often wait until other symptoms arise before seeking help. Such delay may allow the disease to reach a more advanced stage or to involve additional tissues or body structures. Pain alone does little to help a clinician make the proper diagnosis. The physical examination must include careful observation of the patient’s gait and posture for clues as to which bones or joints are involved. Bone abnormalities can often be detected by palpation. In addition, various tests can aid diagnosis, including the following: Imaging techniques such as X rays and CT and MRI scans may reveal dislocations, tumors, and changes in bone size. Bone scans (densitometry) help detect bone cancers, infections, necrosis, trauma, degenerative bone diseases, and metabolic disorders that affect the skeleton. To perform a bone scan, the patient is injected with a radioisotope that has an affinity for bone. After allowing the radioisotope to accumulate in the bones, the pattern of gamma- ray emission is monitored. Diseased bones show a different pattern of emission than healthy bones. Angiography is the process of making an X ray of the blood vessels. The circulatory system must be injected with a contrast medium, such as barium or iodine compounds, to enhance the visibility of the vessels on an X ray. Although this procedure is not limited to examination of the skeletal system, it is useful for evaluating the blood flow to the bones. Hematologic tests can provide clues to bone disorders by measuring the concentrations of enzymes and other chemicals in the blood serum. For example, an elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase may indicate bone cancer or osteitis deformans. Bone cancer, fractures, and long-term immobility can raise the serum calcium concentration. Bone tumors raise the serum phosphate level. Biopsy is used to evaluate both the gross and microscopic anatomy of a small sample of bone. Common Bone Disorders
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course SCIENCE Anatomy an taught by Professor Tory during the Spring '11 term at Kennesaw.

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Lab8 - 8 Bone Tissue Objectives In this chapter we will study methods used to diagnose bone disorders three noncancerous bone osteomyelitis and

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