lab10 - 10 Joints Objectives In this chapter we will study...

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57 10 Joints Objectives In this chapter we will study clinical signs and diagnostic tests for joint disorders in general; and several specific joint disorders—osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, and hip dysplasia. Diagnosing Joint Disorders The bones of the skeleton are connected by joints of several types, each having a specific form and function. The diagnosis of joint disorders is based on many of the same signs, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as the disorders of the skeletal system described in the two previous chapters. In addition, however, the following criteria are relevant to joint disorders in particular: Range of motion (ROM ) is a measurement of the degrees through which a joint can be moved; in effect, it quantifies the flexibility versus the stiffness of a joint. ROM is measured with a device called a goniometer. The active range of motion is the range through which a patient can move a joint by his or her own effort; the passive range of motion is the range through which an examiner can move the patient’s joint. The ROM observed in a physical examination can be compared with the population norm or with previous measurements on the same patient to monitor the severity and course of disease or the progress of therapy. Crepitus is a crackling or grating sound or a vibration produced by joint movement. Arthrography is a diagnostic procedure in which dye is injected into a joint and then an X ray is taken. This method can help identify such anatomical disorders as tears in a meniscus of the knee or damage to the rotator cuff of the shoulder. Arthroscopy is the viewing of the interior of a joint with an arthroscope. This is a common way of looking for damaged cartilage and ligaments in the knee and other joints and for viewing the joint cavity during surgery. Synovial fluid sampling is conducted by aspirating a specimen of fluid from a joint and examining it for chemical changes or the presence of bacteria. This test can help to distinguish septic, inflammatory, and noninflammatory joint diseases. Cell fragments or fibrous tissue in the synovial fluid can indicate excessive wear on the articular surfaces. Hemarthrosis, blood in the synovial fluid, suggests joint trauma. Arthritis Arthritis is a broad term that describes painful or inflamed joints. Although many of us associate arthritis with synovial joints such as the knees and fingers, all types of joints are susceptible to arthritis. There are two principal forms of arthritis: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common noninflammatory joint disease, affecting about 85% of people over 70 years of age. Although changes in the weight-bearing joints begin in some individuals as early as the second decade of life and all people experience some joint pathology by age 40, the symptoms usually don’t show up until age 50 or 60. Men and women are equally affected, but men
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lab10 - 10 Joints Objectives In this chapter we will study...

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