lab14 - 26 Nutrition and Metabolism Objectives In this...

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156 26 Nutrition and Metabolism Objectives In this chapter we will study procedures used for nutritional assessment of a patient; methods of nutritional support; varieties, pathology, and treatment of malnutrition; two common eating disorders—anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa; and fad diets and how to recognize suspicious dietary advice. Clinical Approaches to Nutrition Understanding and appreciating nutrition has become increasingly important in our everyday lives. We are constantly bombarded with advertisements and books promising rapid and safe weight loss. On the other hand, prolonged illnesses and certain medical procedures can induce malnutrition, a lack of one or more nutrients due to dietary deficiency or the inability to properly absorb nutrients. Inherited disorders affecting metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and cystic fibrosis, require specific diets for proper management. In developing countries or other areas with limited economic means, states of malnutrition such as kwashiorkor and marasmus are relatively common. And just as a lack of certain vitamins and minerals can cause disease, too much of a certain substance, as in hypervitaminosis, can also have harmful effects. Interactions between nutrients and drugs are common. Malnutrition can impair drug absorption or metabolism, leading to potentially hazardous side effects. Drugs may also alter appetite or interfere with the metabolism of specific macromolecules, leading to energy and nutrient imbalances. Finally, drugs may hinder the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Assessing Nutritional Status A nutritional assessment determines a patient’s health from a nutritional perspective. An abbreviated assessment can be conducted by a clinician, while a complete assessment is most often performed by either a dietitian or a clinician who has advanced training in nutrition. Either type employs many of the same procedures involved in obtaining a patient history and conducting a physical examination. A complete nutritional assessment consists of the patient’s history, body measurements, a physical examination, and laboratory tests (if warranted). The patient history provides information about the risk factors for poor nutrition, which can be divided into four broad categories: 1. The health history identifies specific diseases that predispose a patient to poor nutrition, such as AIDS, cancer, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, or physiological conditions such as obesity, low body weight, or anorexia. 2. Socioeconomic status indicates whether the patient is at risk for nutritional deficiency. Such factors as having no one to eat with, little money for food, inadequate food storage or preparation facilities, minimal education, poor self-esteem, and lack of transportation all predispose a patient to nutritional deficit. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course SCIENCE Anatomy an taught by Professor Tory during the Spring '11 term at Kennesaw.

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lab14 - 26 Nutrition and Metabolism Objectives In this...

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