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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM II I. Organizations, Implementation and Budgeting: Chapters 6 and 7 A. What are the differences between executive departments, legislative organizations, independent regulatory commissions, and independent executive agencies in terms of control and oversight? a. Executive departments (Dept of Defense, Dept of Health and Human Services etc) a. Headed by a secretary that is a member of the president’s cabinet b. Each secretary is responsible to the president c. Not uniform wholes but collections of agencies d. Some departments have high amounts of internal coordination others don’t b. Legislative organizations a. Assist congress in policymaking b. Three most important: government accountability office, congressional budget office, and congressional research service i. GAO- Was an accounting office but now also issues reports on expenditures and cost-effectiveness ii. CBO- Impacts the annual preparation of the budget iii. CRS- Assists congress in policy research and prepares background material for individual members and committees c. Independent executive agencies a. Independent of executive departments but answer to the president b. Perform executive functions such as implementing public programs c. Independence justified because i. To have greater flexibility completing their mission (NASA) ii. To highlight their importance(Soc. Sec. Admin) iii. In recognition of the political powers and interest groups supporting them(EPA) iv. Some provide services to many departments (Gen Service Administration) d. Independent regulatory commissions a. Do not perform executive functions but act independently to regulate certain sectors of the economy b. President appoints members of a commission but after that the formulation and applications of its regulation is out of his control c. Because the do not answer to the president these commissions are often captured meaning they seek political support of the regulated interest to obtain their budget, personnel, or legislation
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B. How does organizational setting affect the implementation of policy? Think about the ideal setting versus the reality. a. Hood’s five characteristics of public programs a. Administration would be unitary b. Norms and rules would be uniform c. No resistance to commands d. Perfect information and communication in the org e. There would be adequate time b. Organizational Disunity a. Disjunction between central office and field staffs (who implement policies) i. Change in central values or programs may occur with a new president or because of congress. Field staff may be loyal to old ideas ii. Field staff work closely with clients and may be captured by them iii. Field staffs may find that to perform their task effectively they cannot follow all directions from the central office iv. It is suggested that regulatory enforcement could be improved by giving field staffs more autonomy c. Standard Operating Procedures a. Reduce amount of time spent processing each new situation and
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