Chapter8

Sailor uc san diego 9 electron congurations example

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Unformatted text preview: chael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 9 Electron Configurations Example Electron configurations: Potassium 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 shorthand: [Ar]4s1 Vanadium [Ar]4s23d3 Selenium [Ar]4s23d104p4 Note: (n+1)s orbitals always fill up before nd. 4f and 5d orbitals have similar energies, Lanthanides fill up 4f and 5d orbitals in somewhat random order. Don’t worry about lanthanides for now. Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 10 Electron Configurations Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 11 Electron Configurations-Exceptions Exceptions: everything fills up normally, with a few exceptions: Cr: [Ar]4s13d5 Why? half-filled shells are unusually stable. This one you can't predict, just memorize. Cu: [Ar]4s13d10 Why? fully-filled shells are stable. Memorize these Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 12 Ordering of s, p, d, and f orbitals Relative ENERGIES: s<p<d<f Fill ns, then np, then nd orbital. Example (V): Vanadium: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 You always fill up (n+1)s before nd. Why? 13 Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego Ordering of s, p, d, and f orbitals You always fill up (n+1)s before nd. Why? Main factors determining relative energy ordering for orbitals with the same value of n: – Nuclear charge – 3 s orbital Electron-electron repulsion (shielding) 3 px orbital 3 dxz orbital 17 www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/orbital/ Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 14 Ordering of s, p, d, and f orbitals ORBITAL SHAPE: Which orbital allows the electrons to get closer to the nucleus? Radial Probability Functions 1s Ψ2 (probabbility) The electron likes to get closer to the nucleus if it can, so it goes into the s orbital before the p orbital 2s has greater probability “Electron close to the nucleus than 2p Penetration” 2p 2s 0 1 2 3 r, Bohr radii 4 Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 5 6 15 Electron Penetration The lower the value of l, the greater the penetration. Relative ENERGIES: s < p < d < f Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 16 Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 17 Periodic Trends ATOMIC RADII Relative size of atoms IONIC RADII Relative size of ions IONIZATION ENERGY ELE...
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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