1. Animal Structure and Function

1. Animal Structure and Function - Biology 107 Fall 07...

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Introduction to Animal Structure and Function Reading: Chapter 40 pp. 820 – 833 INTRODUCTION Definitions: o Anatomy  = Structure (“form”) of an organism o Physiology  = Function the structure performs – includes study of cells, tissues, organs and  organ systems (a portion of the “hierarchy” of life). Includes study of how the “form” of a tissue/organ/etc. is adapted to its function Animals have capacity to adapt to changes in environment o Long term – natural selection o Short term – physiology Body size and shape affect interactions with the environment o There is a constraint on animal size and shape - as cell size increases, volume increases proportionately more than surface area o Bauplan ” (body plan / body shape) and convergent evolution What do sharks, penguins, and fast-swimming aquatic mammals have in common? Hydrodynamic bauplan o Complex, multicellular organisms needs internal exchange surfaces – to maximize surface  area for exchange. (See Fig. 40.4) Body Fluid Compartments o Intracellular Fluid:  Fluid inside cells. Its composition is different from the ECF. o Extracellular Fluid (ECF):  Fluid outside cells – two compartments. Interstitial Fluid  – fluid surrounding cells Blood Plasma  – fluid portion of blood Two major organizing principles: o Structural Hierarchy:  Atoms, molecules  ? Cells (smallest unit of “life”)  ? Tissues  ? Organs ? Organ Systems  ? Organism o Homeostasis  – regulation of internal environment , keeping conditions within very narrow limits. TISSUES – Introduction: Cells are organized into tissues. Definition : groups of cells with common structure and function o Cells often held together by sticky coating or woven together in fabric of extracellular fibers o Histology  is the study of tissues o Four main categories of tissues: 1) Epithelial tissue 2) Connective tissue 3) Nervous tissue 4) Muscle tissue
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1. Animal Structure and Function - Biology 107 Fall 07...

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