3. Nutrition I and II

3. Nutrition I and II -...

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1 Animal Nutrition I Reading:  Chapter 40 pp. 828-30 (Metabolic Rate); Chapter 41 NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF ANIMALS The  basal energy requirements  of an animal must be met to sustain metabolic functions o Basal metabolic rate (BMR) =   “cost of living” (while awake) Energy required for vital organs’ function – just what’s required for “ staying alive ”. “staying alive” o Additional activities (digesting food, muscular contraction, etc.) impose additional energy  needs o Metabolism  = all biochemical reactions in the body –  Exergonic (catabolic) –  break down reactions; release heat/energy e.g. glycolysis Endergonic (anabolic)  – synthesis reactions; consume heat/energy e.g. protein synthesis Mismatch between nutritional needs and supply: o Undernourished: starvation (caloric deficiency) o Malnourished:   diet missing one or more of the essential nutrients o Overnourished (obese): excessive food intake Nutritionally complete diet provides : o Fuel Fat, CHO (carbohydrates), AA,   CO 2  + H 2 O + Energy (ATP) + Heat o Carbon skeletons for synthesis
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2 o Essential nutrients:   “Essential” means essential in diet , since body cannot synthesize. Essential amino acids  (required for protein synthesis) and  e ssential fatty acids  (required for membrane synthesis) must be consumed in the diet. EFAs – important for babies and young children Vitamins: Fat soluble: A – vision D – Calcium absorption E – antioxidant K – clotting * Since these are stored in the body, too much can make you sick Water soluble: B – coenzymes C – collagen (lack of C = scurvy) Minerals:   Ca++, Na+, Iron, Mg++, K+, etc. Others: Phytochemicals Plant chemicals; pigmented; anti-cancer and anti-oxidant properties Antioxidants Prevent oxidation (aging process) Vitamin E and some phytochemicals Homeostasis  and nutrition o Glucose regulation  – fig. 41.3 OVERVIEW OF FOOD PROCESSING Four main stages of food processing in animals – Fig. 41.12 o Ingestion act of eating o Digestion breakdown of food into small molecules o Absorption
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3 uptake of small molecules (into blood, lymph) o Elimination removal of undigested waste Digestion occurs in specialized compartments o Each organism must develop mechanisms that allow digestive enzymes to act on foodstuffs  without breaking down the animal’s own cells. Intracellular digestion
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course BIOL 107 taught by Professor Abbot during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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3. Nutrition I and II -...

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