20081008

20081008 - Lecture 16 Cardiovascular 1 Lecture16 Gut Energy...

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Lecture 16 Cardiovascular 1 Lecture16 Gut Energy Water, salts Protein wastes Lungs Skin Heat water salts O2 CO2 In very small animals the surface area to volume ratio is large and diffusion distances are short. Diffusion works fine for nutrient and gas exchange if the animal is less than 0.5 mm in radius. Diffusion rate: 10 μ m takes 3.5 sec; 10 cm takes 11 years Thus, metazoans require a circulatory system. Interaction of circulatory and respiratory systems 9 Neural: chemoreceptors and barareceptors 9 Mechanical: intrathoracic pressure Extracellular compartment Intracellular compartment Storage depots Kidneys Water Salts Wastes Toxins Fat Protein Minerals glycogen Input = output + growth But they are intermittent ventilatory pump circulatory pump Hemoglobin P O2 O 2 content chemoreceptors baroreceptors O 2 supply blood flow blood pressure Renal system
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Lecture 16 Cardiovascular 2 General plan of circulatory systems: propulsive organ (heart) arterial system (pressure reservoir) capillaries (exchange) venous system (blood storage) Central circulation: heart and major blood vessels Peripheral circulation: arterial, capillary and venous systems. Open circulations: invertebrates; hemolymph or blood is pumped by a heart but empties into a hemocoel. Hemoceol compartment surrounds and bathes cells. Limited ability to alter the distribution
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20081008 - Lecture 16 Cardiovascular 1 Lecture16 Gut Energy...

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