ANT154A 02BW - Anthropology 154A Lecture 2 Overview of...

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1 Anthropology 154A Lecture 2 Overview of Socioecology: Diversity of Social Systems Diversity of Primate Social Systems Solitary foragers Monogamous pairs Family groups with more than one male but only one breeding female Fission-fusion groups Single-male, multi-female groups Multi-male, multi-female groups Diversity of Primate Social Systems Solitary foragers Examples: Tarsius Daubentonia Loris Diversity of Primate Social Systems Monogamous pairs Examples: Indri Hylobates Aotus Diversity of Primate Social Systems Family groups Examples: Leontopithecus Cebuella Saguinus Diversity of Primate Social Systems Fission-fusion groups Examples: Pan Ateles
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2 Diversity of Primate Social Systems Single-male, multi-female groups Examples: Erythrocebus Colobus Alouatta Diversity of Primate Social Systems Multi-male, multi- female groups Examples: Procolobus ( aka Piliocolobus) Cebus Macaca Not many mammals have this sort of group Behaviors that Differ (and so need explaining) Grouping Size Composition Intergroup relations Territorial/Non-territorial Indifferent/Hostile Ranging Short to long day ranges Small to large home ranges Highly goal-directed or opportunistic movements Behaviors that Differ (and so need explaining) Natal dispersal: sons, daughters, or both Mating systems: Polygynous but dispersed Monogamous Single-male polygynous groups Multi-male polygynous groups Polyandry Female-female and male-male social relations Individualistic/Cooperative Hierarchical/Egalitarian Historical Explanations of Diversity in Primate Social Systems The “Scala naturae”: Gradistic evolution of behavior from simple, solitary ancestors to complex communities of humans Comparative “Socioecology”: General correlations of primate social systems and behavior with habitat Early Socioecology
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3 Early Socioecology Early Socioecology (Today’s photos) Early Socioecology Successes: – Identification of patterns (body size and diet, sexual dimorphism and mating system) – Identification of correlations of critical variables – Stimulated a tremendous amount of field work Socioecology • Focus on survival, reproductive success, and energy efficiency • Premise: behavior not fixed but highly responsive to environmental change • Goal: to find out what in the environment is responsible for variation in social systems and behavior among primates • We’re still grappling with those environmental factors For Example, How Do We Explain Living in Groups? Numerous hypotheses:
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ANT154A 02BW - Anthropology 154A Lecture 2 Overview of...

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