ANT154A 05BW - Regions now occupied by New World primates...

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1 Anthropology 154A Lecture 5 The Haplorhini: Infraorder Platyrrhini New World Monkeys Regions now occupied by New World primates 1. Central America south along the west coast to the equator 2. Rio Orinoco 3. Lower Amazon 4. Upper Amazon 5. Parana/Paraguay Basin 6. Southeastern forest of Brazil 6 1 2 3 4 5 Widely separated nostrils in New World monkeys (“platyrrhini” means “flat nose”) Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Completely closed orbital plate 3 Premolars Most platyrrhines are “red-green color blind” (technical term: dichromatic) Common Behavioral Traits of Platyrrhines They are comfortable in trees All live in groups All but one genus are diurnal Scent-marking is still common (sense of smell still important in communication) Highly variable in social behavior
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2 Infraorder Platyrrhini 1 Superfamily: Ceboidea 2 Families: • Cebidae • Atelidae Platyrrhini, Ceboidea, Cebidae: 3 subfamilies Subfamilies: • Callitrichinae (marmosets, tamarins) • Cebinae (capuchins, squirrel monkeys) • Aotinae (owl monkeys) Haplorhini, Platyrrhini, Ceboidea Cebidae, Callitrichinae: 7 Genera Callithrix Saguinus Cebuella Leontopithecus Callimico Mico Callibella Callitrichines have claw-like nails to grip wide trunks of trees (like Euoticus ) Common marmoset Callitrichines have claw- like nails on all but the big toe Most also have only two molars on each side of the two tooth rows Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Callitrichinae Callithrix Marmosets, short “tusked,” highly gummivorous Saguinus Tamarins, long tusked, less gummivorous
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3 Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Subfamily Callitrichinae Genus Callithrix (6 species) (Atlantic marmosets) Brazil, Bolivia 190-450 g Extended family groups: 3-20 Home range: .7-58 ha Highly gummivorous Litters of 2+ offspring common Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Subfamily Callitrichinae Genus Callithrix (6 species) (Atlantic marmosets) Have a specialized caecum for digesting gums One breeding female per group who attempts to kill offspring if subordinate females give birth Adult offspring often “helpers at the nest” Minimal home range overlap Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Subfamily Callitrichinae Genus Saguinus (16 species) (Tamarins) Mostly upper Amazon and Central America (Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Colombia, Surinam, French Guiana, Costa Rica) 380-643 g Extended family groups: 2-13 Home range: 30-100 ha Frugivorous, gummivorous Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Subfamily Callitrichinae Genus Saguinus (16 species) (Tamarins) Reproductive suppression of subordinate females by suppression of ovulation Often form polyspecific associations Home ranges overlap extensively Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Platyrrhini Family Cebidae Subfamily Callitrichinae Genus Cebuella (1 species) (Pygmy marmoset) Upper Amazon basin (Peru, Ecuador, Brazil) 112-160 g Extended family groups: 2-9
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ANT154A 05BW - Regions now occupied by New World primates...

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