Lec_09_23_11

Lec_09_23_11 - 1 Note: you are responsible for this. That...

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1 Note: you are responsible for this. That is, we can ask a related question is on a test. The basic element of nervous systems is a specialized cell-type called a neuron. nucleus Hillock axon (yellow = mylein black = nodes of ranvier) Synapse axon collateral pyramidal cell stellate cell (white matter) Soma (note: synaptic cleft) Expand Dendrites (note spines) incoming signal information flow 0. Review of Cell Biology of Neurons A. Some Properties of neurons 1) produce electrical potentials across their cell membranes 2) can transmit electrical pulses quickly 3) have receptors which convert chemical messages to electrical 4) Neurons are differentiated cells a) developmentally mature b) do not divide (non-mitotic) 5) specialized for integration and transmission of information B. Functions of neurons supported by 1) how neurons are connected 2) biophysical properties, including electrical properties and channels 3) structure, including varied shapes C. Parts of Neurons (direct students to picture) 1) Soma a) rough ER cause membrane proteins are so important
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2 Note: you are responsible for this. That is, we can ask a related question is on a test. (i) nissl substance which is stained with nissl dye is rough ER b) smooth ER (called sarcoplasmic reticulum, in muscle helps ionic concentration maintenance. 2) cell membrane a) we will talk about in detail during class 3) cytoskeleton a) made from microtubules, neurofilaments and microfilaments (i) In Alzheimer’s neurofilam e nts take over some brain cells and cause "neurofibrillary tangle" D. Specialized Parts 1) Synapse a) We will have a whole lecture devoted towards this 2) Dendrite a) Spines - you can see on picture (i) Very important but beyond scope of this class b) Polyribosomes can be found in dendrites, near spines so they can make proteins 3) axon a) hillock (i) integration of electrical signals b) mention collateral on Figure c) almost no rough ER in axons few if any free ribosomes (i) hence almost no protein synthesis in axons (ii) proteins must come from soma d) membrane proteins very different from the soma e) have lots of mitochondria for energy E. Axoplasmic transport 1) Gets MATERIALS to & Beyond Axon from Soma and vice-versa 2) Learn more in Bio. 104 hopefully F. Glia (The other brain Cell) 1) Unlike neurons, glial cells ARE mitotic a) Because of this most brain tumors are glial cell, not neurons b) In a study of Einstein’s brain, it is alleged that he had the same number of neurons as normal, but more glial cells 2) Functions – Glia are essential supporter cells
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3 Note: you are responsible for this. That is, we can ask a related question is on a test. a) fill space between neurons. b)
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course NPB NPB 100 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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Lec_09_23_11 - 1 Note: you are responsible for this. That...

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