lecture_10_10_17 - Neurotransmitters and Receptor Module 1....

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1. You will learn that neurons are capable of transmitting electrical signals between each other. 2. You will learn about a historical experiment that demonstrated the importance of chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) in neuronal communication. 3. You will learn that chemical communication between neurons takes place at chemical synapses. 4. You will learn the anatomy of the chemical synapse using Duckman. 5. You will learn the sequence of events leading to neurotransmitter release during chemical synaptic transmission 6. You will learn about various types of neurotransmitter and some distinguishing characteristics of each type. 7. You will learn about the two classes of receptor that bind neurotransmitter leading to a voltage change called a postsynaptic potential or PSP. 8. You will use some new techniques (i.e. inductive reasoning and voltage clamping) to determine whether a chemical synapse is excitatory or inhibitory. 9. While performing the voltage clamp technique, you will learn the definition of a reversal potential. 10. You will see that the reversal potential helps to determine whether a receptor is permeable to a single or multiple ions. 11. You will see that the reversal potential is beneficial when determining whether a synapse is inhibitory or excitatory. Neurotransmitters and Receptor Module IV.A.1. How does the somatosensory receptor communicate with a spinal cord neuron? Post-synaptic potential (PSP) time (msec) Voltage (mV) 70 -60 25 50 time (msec) 70 -60 25 50 Weak stimulation Strong stimulation Record from axon Electrically stimulate axon of free nerve ending Record from this spinal chord neuron -75 -65 Synapse Action potentials travel down axon We call this the pre-synaptic cell We call this the post-synaptic cell Note: the terms pre- and post- synaptic only make sense when comparing two neurons. In other words these words define the relationship between two neurons. In reality most neurons send outputs to many neurons and receive inputs from others ; that is most neurons are pre- synaptic to some neurons and post synaptic to others
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IV.A.2. Do neurons communicate electrically or chemically IV.A.2.a. Evidence for chemical: Von Lowei's experiments in 1929. How did neurobiologists find out that chemical transmission was the dominant mode of neural communication? Lowei performed the following experiment: First, Lowei isolated a frog heart with the vagus nerve intact and submerged this preparation into an extracellular bathing medium. Note: the vagus nerve normally innervates the heart. Lowei then electrically stimulated the vagus nerve and observed a decrease in heart rate as expected from previous experiments. Next, Lowei removed the 1st heart from the bathing medium as shown in the
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course NPB NPB 100 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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lecture_10_10_17 - Neurotransmitters and Receptor Module 1....

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