lecture_11_14_development

lecture_11_14_development - Neuronal Development Brain...

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Neuronal Development
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Read pp. 64-80 in addition to required reading on web Brain Structure Seven stages of development Formation of the early nervous system in verts. Axon outgrowth and pathfinding Synapse Formation Developmental plasticity Genetics vs. environment
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How does a complex adult nervous system develop from the egg, a single cell? Development of the nervous system 1) 2) 3) Cell proliferation. Migration. Cell death. Differentiation. 4) 5) Axon growth and pathfinding. 6) Synapse formation 7) Developmental plasticity Mutations lethal Stages of Nervous System Development (not necessarily in this order)
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Brain Structure Seven stages of development Genetics vs. environment Formation of the early nervous system in verts. Axon outgrowth and pathfinding Synapse Formation Developmental plasticity
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Genetics are self-explanatory –development programmed by genes Environment can mean two things: Genetics vs. Environment The actual environment around the animal The environment around cells in the developing nervous system OR
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Sum of experiments indicate simple organisms tend to rely more on genetics 1) 2) complex organisms tend to rely more environmental cues simple organism , the worm C. elegans Single gene mutations in C. elegans can radically alter cell fate, cell migration, and cell death in this animal. Transplantation and ablation studies on C. elegans Environment during development almost never affects C. elegans cell’s fate
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Read pp. 64-80 in addition to required reading on web Seven stages of development Genetic influences in simple organisms Genetics vs. Environment Formation of the early nervous system in verts. Axon outgrowth and pathfinding Synapse Formation Developmental plasticity
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Formation of the early nervous system in verts. Structures in the mesoderm, particularly the notochord induce the formation of the neural plate in the ectoderm. The neural plate then protrudes upward forming the neural folds and the neural crest. The neural folds eventually fuse to form the neural tube. The neural tube is the precursor to the brain and the spinal cord. The neural crest cells are the precursors to the peripheral nervous system and several other cell types. Notochord --> neural plate neural folds neural crest Brain & spinal cord Different cell types in the Peripheral nervous system neural tube Multi-potent cells depending on environment (particularly different tropic chemicals)
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Peripheral nervous system neurons are derived from mulitpotent precursor cells in the neural crest. These cells differentiate into several different cell types depending on which pathway they migrate along in the developing embryo. Cells which migrate toward the somites become sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, cells which migrate between the neural tube and the notochord become neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, cells which migrate below the notochord become chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, and cells which migrate directly beneath the ectoderm become
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course NPB NPB 100 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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lecture_11_14_development - Neuronal Development Brain...

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