Chapter_10___Inequalities of Gender and Age

Chapter_10___Inequalities of Gender and Age - SOCL 151...

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SOCL 151, PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER TEN – INEQUALITIES OF GENDER AND AGE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Define: sex, gender, sexism, sexual harassment, patriarchy, feminism, ageism, Medicare, and Medicaid, 2. Review the differences in life changes by sex, health care, education, work, politics and income. 3. Review the reasons that women receive less wages than men. 4. Discuss reasons why women are less likely than men to be in positions of power and authority. 5. Distinguish between the glass ceiling and the glass escalator. 6. Discuss the issue related to sexual harassment and gender violence. 7. Review the biological vs. environmental debate on gender differences. 8. Understand how aging is socially constructed. 9. Understand the dependency ratio regarding social security and its effect for the future of wage earners. 10. Review the life expectancy in the U.S. 11. Review the theories on ageism. INEQUALTIES OF GENDER An example of an effective program occurred in the Northern Illinois Conference at the United Methodist Church. In 1969-70 a caucus of women clergy and concerned lay women lobbied for a goal of 7% of the clergy to be female by 1975. The church administration agreed to the goal. Though there are still strong pockets of resistance to female pastors, the entire conference now has about 20% women clergy. Another category of inequalities is sex discrimination. The publicity on this issue was heavy in the '60s and '70s, and then seemed to subside at the end of the '70s. With the recent and ongoing debate over abortion, some of these issues in the news. The Equal Rights Amendment was hotly debated and never passed Congress. Many of the goals have been obtained anyway. Women are gaining in education and slowly gaining in management. Firms on the coasts have made progress in implementing family leave policies; the Stride Rite Shoe Company has been a pioneer. Day care facilities are in the plant and parents can have lunch with their children or check on them as needed. Although women are increasingly entering “male” careers -- engineering, law, robotics, for example, there is still a large discrepancy in wages based on sex. Women earn 70% of male salaries for similar jobs. If the occupation requires a college education, women do slightly better, earning 72% of the male's income. The difference may seem insignificant until one realizes that this means $13,000 for a woman and $20,000 for a man. It is the difference between poverty and low middle class if one has a child. At the 70% differential if a man earns $35,000 the woman earns $24,500 -- the difference between low middle class and upper middle class. Sex discrimination has been moderated somewhat in divorce suits. Property settlements
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