Lecture 02 DIWater

Lecture 02 DIWater - Size Range of Common Particles Atomic...

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Fundamentals of Micromachining De-Ionized Water Clean Water as a Processing Chemical • Water (H 2 O) is the most prevalently used material in microfabrication processes, and is used mainly for rinsing and cleaning of wafers. • Approximately 6000 gallons of de-ionized (DI) water are required for each 6” CMOS wafer. • DI water must be manufactured on site to achieve the quality and purity levels required by modern microfabrication. • Each gallon of DI water may require as much as 4-6 gallons of raw city grade water to manufacture. • DI water must be continuously recirculated in order to achieve the quality and purity levels. Size Ranges of Suspended Particles – Macro Particle Range •> 25 µ m, visible to the naked eye – Micro Particle Range • 1 - 15 m, visible with an optical microscope – Macro Molecular Range • 0.1 - 1 m, visible with a high power optical microscope – Molecular Range • 1 - 100 nm, visible with a scanning electron microscope – Ionic Range • 0.1 - 1 nm, not visible with current technology
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Unformatted text preview: Size Range of Common Particles Atomic Radii 1-6 Angstroms Metal Ions 2-7 Angstroms Aqueous Salts 2-20 Angstroms Sugars 7-25 Angstroms Pyrogens 20-250 Angstroms Collodial Silica 6-250 nm Albumin Protein 8-100 nm Viruses 9-100 nm Carbon Black 12-100 nm Tobacco Smoke 20-1000 nm Paint Pigment 0.1-5 m Bacteria 0.25-30 Lung Damaging Dust 0.5-35 Coal Dust 1.0-100 Milled Flour Yeast Cells 2.0-50 Red Blood Cells 5.0-9.0 Pollens 10-100 Human Hair (Diameter) 25-200 Mist 70-200 Beach Sand 100-10,000 Types of Water Filtration Particle Filtration 1-75 m cartridge filters: cellulose, fiberglass, or polypropylene fibers Microfiltration 0.1-1.0 m cartridge filters: ceramic or polymer membranes Ultrafiltration 20-2000 Angstroms: chemically based Reverse Osmosis (Hyperfiltration) 1-200 Angstroms: uses special membrane and high pressure to overcome osmotic pressure...
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2011 for the course MSE 5960 taught by Professor Douglas during the Fall '04 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture 02 DIWater - Size Range of Common Particles Atomic...

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