Lecture 25 Microfluidics

Lecture 25 Microfluidics - Microfluidics Bruce K. Gale...

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Unformatted text preview: Microfluidics Bruce K. Gale Fundamentals of Micromachining Microfluidic System Concept Concept One system to provide all of the possible required analyses for a given type problem All processing steps are performed on the chip No user interaction required except for initialization Portable bedside systems possible Lab-on-a-Chip (Body Fluid In; Answer Out) Sample Prep Sample Separation Sample Detection Electrophoresis, liquid chromatography Molecular exclusion, Field flow fractionation Fluorescence, UV/vis Absorption, Amperometric, Conductivity, Raman Fluid Handling, Amplification, Derivatization, Lysis of cells, Concentration, Extraction, Centrifugation Goals: Fast Portable Robust Easy to use Flexible Inexpensive Modular? Considerations in Microscale Biomedical Analysis Systems Biocompatibility Defined for each application and system Cells, proteins, DNA, tissues all have different requirements Typically low protein absorption, no leaching, non-reactive Harsh chemicals and environment Small sample handling Interfacing with macroscale world Pumps, valves, flow control High pressures, flow rates, and volumes possible Sample injection Multimodal: Fluids, Electrical, Optical, etc. Interfaces with existing systems (standards) Components Separation Mixing Reaction Sample injection Sample preparation Detection Pumping Transport (channels) Reservoirs Flow control Control Intelligence and Memory Power Display Other analysis Sample collection? Dont forget packaging!! Microfluidic Scaling All flow is laminar (no turbulent mixing) Surface tension becomes significant No inertia effects Apparent viscosity increases Fluid Control Components Pumps, valves, channels Pumps and valves of similar design No perfect pumps or valves Generally require mechanical actuation Valve types A: restriction perpendicular to flow B: restriction parallel to flow C: combination of A and B D: phase change (freezing) Microvalve Microvalve Microvalve Bubble Gate Valve Basic Operation Current travels down platinum wires, heating the coil . The coils boil water to produce bubbles Bubbles push on the crosss arms and force it away from the main channel Bubbles generated on the other side of the arms closes the gate valve Envision growing a bubble in the channel Magnetic Valve Example of a typical mechanical valve Can be attached to glass motherboard Modular Pumps Pump Types Valved Piezoelectric Thermo pneumatic Electrostatic Valveless Electro hydrodynamic (EHD) Diffuser Electroosmotic (electrokinetic) Bubble Diffuser pump concept Microfluidic Scaling: Pumping Mechanical (blister pouch) L 3 No fluid contact Generic Innovation in the blister pouch solves valving Difficult to further miniaturize...
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Lecture 25 Microfluidics - Microfluidics Bruce K. Gale...

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