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Lecture 25 Microfluidics

Lecture 25 Microfluidics - Microfluidics Bruce K Gale...

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Unformatted text preview: Microfluidics Bruce K. Gale Fundamentals of Micromachining Microfluidic System Concept Concept • One system to provide all of the possible required analyses for a given type problem • All processing steps are performed on the chip • No user interaction required except for initialization • Portable bedside systems possible Lab-on-a-Chip (Body Fluid In; Answer Out) Sample Prep Sample Separation Sample Detection Electrophoresis, liquid chromatography Molecular exclusion, Field flow fractionation Fluorescence, UV/vis Absorption, Amperometric, Conductivity, Raman Fluid Handling, Amplification, Derivatization, Lysis of cells, Concentration, Extraction, Centrifugation Goals: • Fast • Portable • Robust • Easy to use • Flexible • Inexpensive • Modular? Considerations in Microscale Biomedical Analysis Systems • Biocompatibility – Defined for each application and system – Cells, proteins, DNA, tissues all have different requirements – Typically low protein absorption, no leaching, “non-reactive” • Harsh chemicals and environment • Small sample handling • Interfacing with macroscale world • Pumps, valves, flow control – High pressures, flow rates, and volumes possible • Sample injection • Multimodal: Fluids, Electrical, Optical, etc. • Interfaces with existing systems (standards) Components • Separation • Mixing • Reaction • Sample injection • Sample preparation • Detection • Pumping • Transport (channels) • Reservoirs • Flow control • Control • Intelligence and Memory • Power • Display • Other analysis • Sample collection? Don’t forget packaging!! Microfluidic Scaling • All flow is laminar (no turbulent mixing) • Surface tension becomes significant • No inertia effects • Apparent viscosity increases Fluid Control Components • Pumps, valves, channels – Pumps and valves of similar design – No perfect pumps or valves • Generally require mechanical actuation • Valve types – A: restriction perpendicular to flow – B: restriction parallel to flow – C: combination of A and B – D: phase change (freezing) Microvalve Microvalve Microvalve Bubble Gate Valve • Basic Operation – Current travels down platinum wires, heating the coil . – The coils boil water to produce bubbles – Bubbles push on the cross’s arms and force it away from the main channel – Bubbles generated on the other side of the arms closes the gate valve • Envision growing a bubble in the channel Magnetic Valve • Example of a typical mechanical valve • Can be attached to glass motherboard • Modular Pumps Pump Types • Valved – Piezoelectric – Thermo pneumatic – Electrostatic • Valveless – Electro hydrodynamic (EHD) – Diffuser – Electroosmotic (electrokinetic) – Bubble Diffuser pump concept Microfluidic Scaling: Pumping • Mechanical (blister pouch) – L 3 – No fluid contact – Generic – Innovation in the blister pouch solves valving – Difficult to further miniaturize...
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Lecture 25 Microfluidics - Microfluidics Bruce K Gale...

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