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Lecture 26a BioMEMS - Biomedical Applications of MEMS...

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Biomedical Applications of MEMS Dr. Bruce K. Gale Fundamentals of Micromachining Biochip Technology with special thanks to Xiaolian Gao, University of Houston Genetic Database • Challenges – Function must be assigned to gene (discovery) – Location of gene determined (mapping) – How often is gene used (expression) – How do these genes differ between individuals (genetic variation) DNA Hybridization Arrays High density arrays of polynucleotide probes Used for genetic sequence analysis Why do we care? – New targets for drugs or other therapeutic intervention – Diagnostic markers for disease – Development of improved agricultural products
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A C G T Probe (immobilized on a surface) Probe (immobilized on a surface) Target (in solution) hybridization hybridization Basic Principles of DNA Basic Principles of DNA Microarrays How Important is the Sequence ? How Important is the Sequence ? Biological relevance of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) 1 acatttgctt ctgacacaac tgtgttcact agcaacctca aacagacacc atggtgcacc 61 tgactcctg X ggagaagtct gccgttactg ccctgtgggg caaggtgaac gtggatgaag 121 ttggtggtga ggccctgggc aggctgctgg tggtctaccc ttggacccag aggttctttg 181 agtcctttgg ggatctgtcc actcctgatg ctgttatggg caaccctaag gtgaaggctc 241 atggcaagaa agtgctcggt gcctttagtg atggcctggc tcacctggac aacctcaagg 301 gcacctttgc cacactgagt gagctgcact gtgacaagct gcacgtggat cctgagaact 361 tcaggctcct gggcaacgtg ctggtctgtg tgctggccca tcactttggc aaagaattca 421 ccccaccagt gcaggctgcc tatcagaaag tggtggctgg tgtggctaat gccctggccc 481 acaagtatca ctagctcgct ttcttgctgt ccaatttcta ttaaaggttc ctttgttccc 541 taagtccaac tactaaactg ggggatatta tgaagggcct tgagcatctg gattctgcct 601 aataaaaaac atttattttc attgc Hemoglobin B Hemoglobin B Sequence Sequence If X = A, normal If X = T Sickle Cell Anemia Fatigue, paleness, and shortness of breath Pain Eye problems (can cause blindness) Delayed growth
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