Linear Momentum Lab

# Linear Momentum Lab - Linear Momentum of a Water Jet...

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Linear Momentum of a Water Jet Emberle Lawson Jess Mendenhall Jacob Taylor - Team Leader July 14, 2011 Fluid Mechanics I-ENGR 01342 1 Jesse F. Van Kirk Introduction Sustainability of Earth’s resources and the development of new types of reusable fuels are two major concerns being faced by scientists and engineers today. With the availability of petroleum-sourced fuels quickly diminishing, scientists have been turning towards the use of wind and hydroelectric power, both of which utilize a turbine to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. In order to determine the force on the turbine and how much it will turn as a result of the force, Newton’s Second Law of motion regarding momentum becomes necessary. In performing this lab, the objective was to determine the force on a stationary target due to a water jet. This force is the force required to keep a stationary plate at a specified level mark. Using Newton’s second law, the linear momentum equation specifically, as a basis of comparison, the experimental and theoretical velocities and forces of the jet stream were

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calculated and analyzed. The assumption that the magnitude of the velocity will not vary, but the direction will vary, was also a basis for the experiment. When the water jet impacts a target, it changes direction. While this set-up is much simpler than determining how much a turbine will rotate, this experiment shows how well theoretical equations predict the momentum a target will face in the real world. Relevant Theory In performing this lab, an upward pointed nozzle attached to a pump streamed water at a target plate, which in turn, applied a force to the plate. This force acting on the plate was applied due to a change in linear momentum of the water stream. By determining the change in momentum of the water stream, the applied force can be calculated. To determine the change in momentum, a control volume and system must be considered. A control volume is a geometric volume in space, independent of mass, through which fluid may flow. A system is identified only by the quantity of matter. This matter can be contained in any volume of space and still be considered the same system as long as the same amount of matter is contained in that system. The numerical values and geometric properties of the control volume and system can be used to make calculations regarding velocity and momentum of a moving fluid. For this experiment the control volume, CV, will be considered fixed and non-deformable. The CV will be the volume surrounding the water stream from the point that it leaves the nozzle to the point that it hits the flow deflectors. The system will be the constant amount of water particles present in the CV after a steady flow is reached. The sum of the forces acting on the plate can be calculated through determining the sum of the
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## This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course ENGINEERIN 1 taught by Professor Cag during the Spring '08 term at Rowan.

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Linear Momentum Lab - Linear Momentum of a Water Jet...

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