lab5 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings

lab5 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings - Energy Losses in...

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Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings ____________________ Emberle Lawson ____________________ Jake Taylor ____________________ Jess Mendenhall ____________________ Michael Spanier – Team Leader July 21, 2011 Fluid Mechanics I-ENGR 01342 1 Jesse F. Van Kirk Introduction The objective of the lab according to “Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings” is to determine the loss coefficient, K L , in different types of bends. The lab will explore the different types of energy losses that occur in bends. Bends are necessary in engineering applications to move water and other fluids from one position to the next, which can be seen firsthand underneath any kitchen sink. The curvature of bends causes secondary flow, which is the cause of the energy losses. Secondary flow can be thought of as turbulence when a change of area occurs. The less gradual the change in area, the less the magnitude of the energy loss. The loss coefficient of bends varies greatly from each bend because of the varying radius of curvature and pipe diameter. The lab will allow this variation to be explored. Losses in fittings, bends, and valves are proportional to the velocity of the fluid flowing through. Relevant Theory When a fluid moves through a pipe system, certain properties of the pipes and pipe components can cause the fluid’s velocity and pressure to be altered. The pipe itself causes the fluid to
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experience friction, which causes the fluid to lose kinetic energy as the fluid travels throughout the pipes. The pipe components that cause energy losses include pipe bends, sudden area expansion and contraction, and valves. The energy loss due to friction applied to the fluid from the pipes is called major head loss, h LMajor , and the energy loss due to pipe components is called minor head loss, h LMinor . Together these losses make up head loss, h L. (1) h L = Total head loss h LMinor = Minor head loss h LMajor = Major head loss For this lab, the minor head loss due to pipe components will be considered, namely pipe bends and expansions and contractions. The head loss due to bends is a minor head loss and can be calculated through the use of Equation 2, where head loss is a function of the fluid’s entrance
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course ENGINEERIN 1 taught by Professor Cag during the Spring '08 term at Rowan.

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lab5 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings - Energy Losses in...

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