Chapter_1.pdf - SEX AND GENDER Most groups have...

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SEX AND GENDER sex: refers to sexual anatomy and behaviourgender: refers to being male, female, or some other gender such as trans.Cultivation: the notion that people begin to think that what they see on television and in other media really represents the mainstream Agenda Setting: In communications theory, the idea that the media define what is important and what is not by which stories they cover. Social Learning: In communications theory, the idea that the media provide role models whom we imitate. CROSS CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES Culture: Traditional ideas and values passed down from generation to generation within a group and transmitted to members of the group by symbols (such as language). Ethnocentrism: tendency to regard our ethnic group/culture as superior to others and to believe its customs and way of life are standards by which other cultures should be judged Incest Taboo: Regulations prohibiting sexual interaction between close blood relatives, such as brother and sister or father and daughter. Kissingis one of most common techniques in our culture but in a few cultures it is unknown. “Eat each other’s saliva and dirt.” Kwakiutl of BC and Trobriand Islanders kissing is sucking the lips and tongue and permitting saliva to flow from one mouth to other.Cunnilingusis common and occurs in a few others, especially in south pacific. Island of Ponape: man places fish in the woman’s vulva and then licks it out prior to coitus.Inflicting Pain: Apinaye woman of Brazilian highlands may bite offbits of partner's eyebrows Irish natives of Inis Beag, discussed in the A Sexually Diverse World box, who engage in intercourse perhaps only once or twice a month; however, the anthropologists who studied them were unable to determine exactly how often couples did have sex because so much secrecy surrounds the act. Mangaians described in Sexually Diverse World box, do intercourse several times/night, at least among the young Most groups have restrictions that forbid intercourse at certain timesor in certain situations. Very few societies encourage people to engage in sex intercourse at particular timesPostpartum sex taboo (almost every society has one) a prohibition on sexual intercourse for a time after woman gives birth, with the taboo lasting from a few days to more than a year Canadian frequency of intercoursein 1990s was ~ in middle compared with other societies MasturbationSelf-stimulation of the genitals to produce sexual arousalThe African Azande woman uses a phallus made of a wooden rootfor Masturbation; however, if her husband catches her masturbating, he may beat her severely Almost all human societies express some disapproval of adult masturbation

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