TestTerms#2 - CHAPTER 4 Summary: 1. William James was the...

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Summary: 1. William James was the 1 st American to write about the concept of the self. His concept included an outward and inward aspect of the self, which he called the I and the Me, respectively. 2. George Herbet Mead developed the theory of symbolic interaction. According to Mead, the development of the self rests on an individual’s ability to take roles. His theory proposes that the self is formed in 3 stages: the preparatory stage, the play stage, and the game stage. 3. Manford Kuhn developed an instrument called the 20 Statements Test to measure an individual’s self-concept. This instrument reveals 2 broad categories of our self-identities: role identities and dispositional identities. 4. Self-esteem involves feelings of worth. Charles Horton Cooley provided the widely accepted concept of the looking-glass self. Self-efficacy refers to a person’s sense of competence. It is influenced by an individual’s beliefs about the causes of his or her own successes or failures. 5. Leon Festinger claimed that social interaction involves comparisons intended to evaluate our own behaviors, abilities, expertise, and opinions. We tend to compare ourselves to people similar to ourselves. 6. Determining our feelings can be difficult and confusing. William James suggested that our behavior provides a clue for the label that we attach to our emotional reactions. Research shows that people may also look for clues in the environment. 7. Goffman’s dramaturgical school of thought is based on the idea that human interaction involves social roles that help us define how we ought to act in certain situations. Elements that serve as important clues for defining a situation include the setting, appearance, and manner. Goffman also distinguishes the front region, where a performance is given, from the back region, where actors can abandon their scripts. Me 101: The component of the self that represents the self as the object and gives direction to an act. I 101: The impulsive, spontaneous component of the self. Preparatory Stage 102: The stage in Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism in which a child simple imitates the behavior of others. Play Stage 103: The stage in Mead’s theory of symbolic interactionism in which a child takes the role of specific people and imagines the world from their perspectives. Significant others 104: Important people who exert a strong influence on children during the development of the self. Game stage 104: In Mead’s theory of symbolic interaction, the completing stage of the self. Generalized other 105 : a representation of an individual’s internalization of society’s rules Multiple selves 106 : the idea that an individual has many social selves or different relationships with various people Multiple personality 106 : Mead’s term for an illness characterized by two separate “me’s” and “I’s” that produce two separate selves. Self-concept 106
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2011 for the course SOC 301 taught by Professor Shayh during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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TestTerms#2 - CHAPTER 4 Summary: 1. William James was the...

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