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Animal Behavior and Evolution

Animal Behavior and Evolution - Exam 3 X(Natal Dispersion...

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Exam 3 11/16/2011 X (Natal Dispersion) New Habitat –find mats/resources –defend territory Natal Site Where your born Natal Philopatry: Non-dispersal organisms Ultimate question why Proximate questions how Young males are bigger dispersers Why? In terms of cost and benefits Costs of philopatry 1. inbreeding depression-reduces genetic variation because breeding with kin –increase risk of producing offspring homozygous for recessive traits “Inset taboo” why cant’ we mate with our kin Crows in Ithaca, NY offspring produces from close relatives tended to be higher incidences of disease WNV German cockroach: If the female is given a choice of males: non-kin or kin she will chose the non-related mates Brother and sister were separated at birth and then met in their late twenties they fell in love and had four children Cost #2: Reproductive Suppression Adult breeders suppress development of young ones philopatric young ones examples are chimps and apes Mammals behavioral aggression Insects use chemicals Cost #3: Density dependent competition Increased competition one of the classic example is a parasite that lives in a small intestine parasite and is infect with a different disease 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 larvae infects Measure the number of eggs per female goes from 10 to 200 and have 10 eggs per day they are competing for food, shelter, mates, and space Benefits of philopatric: a) Adaptation to local conditions-combination of genes the environment
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b) Familiarity to the local environment which helps get resources, shelter if you are familiar to relatives it is less aggression and less stress Cost of Natal dispersion 1. unfamiliarity to new habitat 2. high energy costs cricket species with 2 phenotypes in white cricket it is a disperser and has huge wings and muscles to fly and the second phenotype is a non-disperser and has little stubby wings The numbers of eggs produced over time (GRAPH WITH HUGE WINGS) and then number of eggs produced over time (GRAPH FOR STUBBY WINGS) The ones with the stubby wings produces more eggs
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Animal Behavior and Evolution - Exam 3 X(Natal Dispersion...

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