lecture12 - Lecture 12: Electrolytes; Acids and Bases...

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Lecture 12: Electrolytes; Acids and Bases What makes exchange reactions take place? Three types of exchange reactions : Form a precipitate precipitate • an insoluble insoluble ionic compound •AgNO 3 (aq) + KC l (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgC AgC l (s) Form a molecular compound molecular compound • Often water •H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O( l ) Form a molecular gas. gas. •2 HC l (aq) + Na 2 S(aq) 2 NaC l (aq) + H 2 S(g)
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Electrolytes • Some solutions conduct electricity These solutes are called “electrolytes” They dissociate into ions •NaC l Na + + Cl - • The ions interact with the solvent (especially water) The extent of solubility varies depending on the balance between interaction of ions with themselves and with water • Solutes that do not conduct electricity are non- electrolytes Aqueous Solubility of Compounds • Not all compounds dissolve in water. • Not all dissolved compounds dissociate • Solubility varies from compound to compound. Soluble ionic compounds dissociate. Most molecular compounds stay associated in water. Ions are solvated
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When ionic solutions mix, a precipitate may form: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaC l (aq) AgC l (s (s ) + NaNO 3 (aq) Not all ions react The solubility rules help predict reactions. A reaction occurs if a product is insoluble. KNO 3 (aq) + NaC l (aq) No reaction Precipitation Reaction Soluble species: Soluble species: • All ammonium and group 1A (Na + , K + ,…. and NH 4 + salts) • All nitrates (NO 3 - ) • Most chlorides, bromides and iodides (exceptions: AgX, Hg 2 X 2 , and PbX 2 ; X = C l - , Br - , I - ). • Most sulfates (SO 4 2- ) (exceptions: CaSO 4 ,SrSO 4 , BaSO 4 , Ag 2 SO 4 , PbSO 4 , and Hg 2 SO 4 ) • All chlorates (C l O 3 - ) • All perchlorates (C l O 4 - ) • All acetates (CH 3 COO - ) Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds
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Insoluble species Insoluble species Type Exceptions • All phosphates (PO 4 3- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All carbonates (CO 3 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All hydroxides (OH - ) Group 1A, NH 4 + Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 & Ca(OH) 2 are slightly soluble • All oxalates (C 2 O 4 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All oxides (O 2- ) Group 1A • All sulfides (S 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + MgS, CaS & BaS are slightly soluble. Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds (a)Nitrates (soluble) AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 CdS Sb 2 S 3 PbS (NH 4 ) 2 S soluble insoluble (c) Sulfides (b) Hydroxides (insoluble) Cu(OH) 2 AgOH Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds
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Products? Na + SO 4 2- Ba 2+ NO 3 - Precipitation Reactions Na 2 SO 4 (aq) and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) are mixed. Will they react?
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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lecture12 - Lecture 12: Electrolytes; Acids and Bases...

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