Electrolytes•Some solutions conduct electricityThese solutes are called “electrolytes”They dissociate into ions• NaClNa++ Cl-•The ions interact with the solvent (especially water)The extent of solubility varies depending on the balance between interaction of ions with themselves and with water•Solutes that do not conduct electricity are non-electrolytesAqueous Solubility of Compounds•Not all compounds dissolve in water.•Not all dissolved compounds dissociate•Solubility varies from compound to compound.Soluble ionic compounds dissociate.Most molecular compounds stay associated in water.Ions are solvated
When ionic solutions mix, a precipitate mayform:AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s(s)+ NaNO3(aq)Not all ions reactThe solubility rules help predict reactions.A reaction occurs if a product is insoluble.KNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) No reactionPrecipitation ReactionSoluble species:Soluble species:•All ammonium and group 1A (Na+, K+,…. and NH4+salts)•All nitrates (NO3-)•Most chlorides, bromides and iodides(exceptions: AgX, Hg2X2, and PbX2; X = Cl-, Br-, I-).•Most sulfates (SO42-)(exceptions: CaSO4, SrSO4, BaSO4, Ag2SO4, PbSO4, and Hg2SO4)•All chlorates (ClO3-)•All perchlorates (ClO4-)•All acetates (CH3COO-)Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds
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