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Lacey_Che131_F2011_Lect-4

Lacey_Che131_F2011_Lect-4 - Lec-4 Periodic table and...

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Lec-4: Periodic table and Compounds 1 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 Periodic table Tabular display of chemical elements which provides a useful framework to classify, systematize, and compare the chemical and physical properties of elements. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table ¾ He left open spaces in his periodic table to account for elements not yet discovered Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 2
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Modern periodic table Period Group Transition elements Elements ordered in terms of increasing atomic number Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 3 ordering reflects electronic configuration Chemical Reactivity ` Families Similar valence e - within a group result in similar chemical properties 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 4
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Modern periodic table ` Alkali Metals ` Alkaline Earth Metals T i i M l ` Transition Metals ` Halogens ` Noble Gases 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 5 Periodic table The modern periodic table is based on a classification of elements in terms of their physical and chemical properties. ¾ The horizontal rows are called periods. ¾ Columns contain elements of the same family or gro p group. ¾ The main group elements or representative elements are in groups 1 & 2 (alkaline and alkaline earth metals) and 13 – 18. 9 Group 17 contains the halogens. ¾ Transition metals are the elements in groups 3 - 12 Transition metals are the elements in groups 3 12. ¾ The noble gasses are the elements in group 18 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 6
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Information in the Periodic table Each row ( period ) in the table corresponded to the filling of a quantum shell of electrons (will be discussed later). Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 7 Periodic table Alternative periodic tables have been developed to highlight or emphasize highlight or emphasize different chemical or physical properties of the elements which are not as apparent in which are not as apparent in traditional periodic tables Benfey's periodic table Depicts the elements as a seamless series with the main group elements radiating from the center with the d- and f-elements filling around loops Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 8
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Compounds Metals: 9 High conductivity 9 High melting point 9 Hard 9 malleable Different kinds of [simple] compounds can be formed Metal + Metal Metal Compound Metal + Metal Metal + Non-Metal Ionic Compound Non-Metal + Non-Metal Covalent Compound Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Fall 2011 9 Metallic bonds “electron sea” e 1- e 1- e 1- + + + Cations e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- + + + + + e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- e 1- + + + + + 1 e 1- Free electrons + Metallic bonding is the attraction between positive ions and surrounding freely mobile electrons. Most metals contribute
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