Lacey_Che131_F2011_Lect-3s

Lacey_Che131_F2011_Lect-3s - Lec-3 Atomic Theory Roy A...

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Lec-3: Atomic Theory Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 1 Atomic Theory The electrons are situated at comparatively large distances (compared to nuclear dimensions) (compared to nuclear dimensions) around the nucleus The fundamental structural blocks of substances are the Elements Compounds Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 2 atoms
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Periodic table alkali metals (group 1) Alkaline earth metals (group 2) Halogens (group 17) Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 3 Periodic table The modern periodic table is based on a classification of elements in terms of their physical and chemical properties physical and chemical properties. The horizontal rows are called periods. Columns contain elements of the same family or group. Transition metals are the elements in group 3 through 12 in the periodic table. Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 4
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Atoms A neutron is an electrically neutral particle with a mass of 1.008665 amu. ¾ Outside the nucleus, the neutron is unstable. } A A proton is a stable particle with a positive electric charge of 1.6x10 - 19 e np e ν →+ + . A Mass # C, and a mass of 1.007276 amu. ¾ Inside the nucleus, protons can transform Z X Atomic # to neutrons 0 0 e e pn e pe n ++ +− →++ + The atomic number uniquely Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 5 The atomic number uniquely identifies an element Elements & Isotopes X A Z X is the atomic symbol A is the mass number. Z is the atomic number. Isotopes are different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons. ¾ isotopes differ in mass number (or number of nucleons) but never in atomic number . ¾ Radioisotopes undergo The neutron number has important effects on nuclear properties, but negligible effects on chemical Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 6 radioactive decay negligible effects on chemical properties.
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2011 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lacey_Che131_F2011_Lect-3s - Lec-3 Atomic Theory Roy A...

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