Hobbes Leviathan

Hobbes Leviathan - 1 1651 2 LEVIATHAN 3 by Thomas Hobbes 4...

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1651 1 LEVIATHAN 2 by Thomas Hobbes 3 INTRODUCTION 4 NATURE (the art whereby God hath made and governs the world) is by the art of 5 man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that it can make an artificial 6 animal. For seeing life is but a motion of limbs, the beginning whereof is in some 7 principal part within, why may we not say that all automata (engines that move 8 themselves by springs and wheels as doth a watch) have an artificial life? For what is 9 the heart, but a spring; and the nerves, but so many strings; and the joints, but so many 10 wheels, giving motion to the whole body, such as was intended by the Artificer? Art 11 goes yet further, imitating that rational and most excellent work of Nature, man. For 12 by art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMONWEALTH, or STATE 13 (in Latin, CIVITAS), which is but an artificial man, though of greater stature and 14 strength than the natural, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in 15 which the sovereignty is an artificial soul, as giving life and motion to the whole 16 body; the magistrates and other officers of judicature and execution, artificial joints; 17 reward and punishment (by which fastened to the seat of the sovereignty, every joint 18 and member is moved to perform his duty) are the nerves, that do the same in the 19 body natural; the wealth and riches of all the particular members are the strength; 20 salus populi (the people's safety) its business; counsellors, by whom all things needful 21 for it to know are suggested unto it, are the memory; equity and laws, an artificial 22 reason and will; concord, health; sedition, sickness; and civil war, death. Lastly, the 23 pacts and covenants, by which the parts of this body politic were at first made, set 24 together, and united, resemble that fiat, or the Let us make man, pronounced by God 25 in the Creation. 26 To describe the nature of this artificial man, I will consider * First, the matter thereof, 27 and the artificer; both which is man. * Secondly, how, and by what covenants it is 28 made; what are the rights and just power or authority of a sovereign; and what it is 29 that preserveth and dissolveth it. * Thirdly, what is a Christian Commonwealth. * 30 Lastly, what is the Kingdom of Darkness. 31 Concerning the first, there is a saying much usurped of late, that wisdom is acquired, 32 not by reading of books, but of men. Consequently whereunto, those persons, that for 33 the most part can give no other proof of being wise, take great delight to show what 34 they think they have read in men, by uncharitable censures of one another behind their 35
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backs. But there is another saying not of late understood, by which they might learn 36 truly to read one another, if they would take the pains; and that is, Nosce teipsum, 37 Read thyself: which was not meant, as it is now used, to countenance either the 38 barbarous state of men in power towards their inferiors, or to encourage men of low 39 degree to a saucy behaviour towards their betters; but to teach us that for the
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Hobbes Leviathan - 1 1651 2 LEVIATHAN 3 by Thomas Hobbes 4...

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