Russia - Historical Background RUSSIA Impact of Marxism The...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/24/2010 Historical Background RUSSIA Impact of Marxism The The Soviet Union claimed to base its political system on the ideas of Karl Marx. So then, what were Marx’s actual ideas? actual ideas? Russian Russian Empire –15th Century to 1917 Absorption Absorption of other nations through conquest and protection agreements conquest and protection agreements Feudalism Feudalism continues through early 20th Century Revolutionary Revolutionary (liberal) ideas reach Russia— Russia—Decembrist revolt--1825 revolt--1825 Marx’s View of Human Nature What What distinguishes humans from all other animals? Creativity, Creativity, imagination, the ability to adapt what is found in nature to serve their purposes; All All of which involves LABOR A person’s labor power is what a person person’s uses to fulfill oneself as a human being – it is how a person expresses individuality; If If 1 3/24/2010 Marx and Human Freedom Thus, Thus, a system in which a small number of people OWN THE LABOR of most of the people is a system that denies most people true human denies most people true human FREEDOM; FREEDOM; INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND LIBERTY— LIBERTY—are Marx’s cause; To To Marx, capitalism is a system that denies people their individuality and freedom Marx – Historical Materialism Modes Modes of Production: Primitive Primitive Communism Antagonistic Antagonistic Modes of Production: --Slavery --Slavery (masters and slaves) --Feudalism --Feudalism (lords and serfs) --Capitalism --Capitalism (bourgeoisie and proletariat) Communism Communism MARX – Historical Materialism Human history inevitably moves through a series of “modes of production”: “Antagonistic” modes of production involve “exploitation” of one class by another Exploitation— Exploitation—Extraction of surplus value from the worker Surplus value— Surplus value—the amount of value created by the worker over value created by the worker over the the amount of value needed to reproduce the worker (meaning, bring him back to work tomorrow) 2 3/24/2010 Marx Marx Each Each stage of exploitation contains an internal contradiction that ensures its eventual demise Slavery— Slavery—requires increasing force and expense to maintain slaves by and force Feudalism— Feudalism—enables the exploited class to buy its way out Capitalism— Capitalism—pushes workers together in situations where they realize their strength Capitalism— Capitalism—the most advanced system of exploitation – veil of freedom BUT— BUT— Capitalism robs the laborer of his Capitalism robs the laborer of his individuality, individuality, by robbing him of what he makes Work Work is the essence of life—how we life— express our individuality Capitalism Capitalism robs us of our individuality Marx Lenin Overthrow Overthrow of capitalism inevitable— inevitable— will result from mass movement by the workers of the world Workers will create a “dictatorship of Workers will create dictatorship of the the proletariat” (or State Socialism, which is akin to democracy) Gradual Gradual confiscation of capital Classless Classless and Stateless Society In In capitalist dominated society, workers cannot develop revolutionary class consciousness on their own A revolutionary vanguard is revolutionary necessary Theory Theory makes communist revolution possible in country without massive capitalist class Turns Turns Marxism on its head--elitism head--elitism 3 3/24/2010 Communism Marxism Marxism – belief in Marx’s philosophy and analysis of history, economics, and politics based on class conflict. communism communism – belief in a classless, stateless society. Communism Communism – A system in which all productive forces are owned by government, and in which there is usually a one-party onestate, justified by idea that this will eventually lead to small “c” communism. Socialism Socialism – A belief in, or a system in which, some or all of the productive forces are owned by government, and there is a major effort at redistribution in order to ensure a certain level of economic equality. State State Capitalism—What big “C” capitalism has proven to be in practice— practice—capitalism with only one capitalist – the government Russian Russian Revolution 1905 Rebellion— 1905 Rebellion—military and peasant rebellion put down by tsar Nicholas II Nicholas Nicholas II concedes to demand for a body body to represent the people: 1906— 1906—The Duma is created But, But, Nicholas claims the power to ignore the Duma Contemporary Contemporary Western Capitalism – a primarily capitalist system in which measures are taken to ensure against capitalism’s excesses, very influenced by workers’ movements inspired by Marx. 1917— 1917—Year of Revolution February 1917 Revolution—succeeds, putting bourgeois liberal democracy in place Two groups of communists in the Duma: Mensheviks and Bolsheviks October 1917—Communist (Bolshevik) Revolution The Lenin Years New New Soviet Union is a Federation, but a one-party onestate, run by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Party of the Soviet Union. Lenin Lenin named by the Congress of Soviets as Chairman of the Congress of People’s Commisars. Commisars. 4 3/24/2010 Lenin The Lenin Years Russian Russian Civil War (1918—1922). War (1918— between the Bolsheviks and the White Russians (monarchists and liberals aided by Great Britain, United States, States, France, and Japan). War War Communism – Nationalization of industry, illegalization of private enterprise, food and commodity rationing. The Lenin Years 1922— 1922—New Economic Policy (NEP) – Isolated Soviet Union turns to degree of private enterprise. – Lenin dies in 1924. Communism Communism was impossible in one state— state—required building revolution in much of the rest of the world before true communist era could begin. Lenin’s Lenin’s goal: to foment a worldwide revolution Organization of the Soviet State Legislative Legislative Branch: --Supreme --Supreme Soviet – members chosen by the local Soviets (the members of the local soviets elected by the people) --Presidium --Presidium of the Supreme Soviet – members chosen by the Supreme Soviet (Presidium could veto laws, interpret laws, declare war, decide what countries to recognize, and other large decisions) 5 3/24/2010 Organization of the Soviet State Executive Branch: --Council of People’s Commissars (changed in 1940s to the Council of Ministers) Executive Branch: Ministers) Executive Branch: --Council of People’s Commissars – members chosen by the Supreme Soviet Organization of the Soviet State In In reality, the head of the Politburo (the General Secretary of the Communist Party) was the leader of the USSR the USSR Lenin Lenin and Stalin were both Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars Later Later General Secretaries were Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Organization of the Soviet State In In reality: The USSR was run by the Communist Party. The The Politburo, the central body of the Communist Party decided what the laws Communist Party, decided what the laws would would be The The Supreme Soviet, consisting entirely of members of the Communist Party, would pass those laws Organization of the Soviet State Judicial Judicial Branch --Supreme Court – members chosen by the administrator of courts, who was appointed by the Supreme was appointed by the Supreme Soviet. Soviet. No power of judicial review. Local Courts—had elected judges Courts— 6 3/24/2010 Organization of the Soviet State Stalin In In fact: The The Communist Party decided who would be on the ballot, who would serve in every government position serve in every government position. The Stalin Years Different Different philosophy from Lenin— Lenin— single state communism—contradicts communism— belief of Marx, Engels, Lenin that communism cannot exist in one state alone Totalitarian Totalitarian government Command Command economy Stalin Five year plans—begin in 1928—the “Gosplan” (state planning committee) is formed. Rapid economic development— focusing on heavy industry—at expense of production of consumer goods, worker rights etc rights, etc. Stalin: “We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this lag in 10 years. Either we do it, or they crush us." 7 3/24/2010 Stalin The Stalin Years Five Five year plans based on the Theory of Productive Forces Communist Communist Party of the Soviet Union—oneUnion—one-party state Political Political Repression Government control of all media Government control of all media The The Great Purge Collectivization Collectivization of farming results in famine, killing of Kulaks (better-off (betterpeasants who had become small landowners) As As many as 11 million die Results in rationing and shortages of Results in rationing and shortages of consumer consumer needs The Stalin Years WWII WWII Stalin Stalin pact with Hitler on Poland Loss Loss of 10.7 million soldiers and 11.9 million civilians million civilians 1 million Soviet Jews killed by the million Nazis Soviet Soviet Union helps to defeat Germany Division Division of Europe into Western and Soviet spheres of influence. The Cold War Stalin’s Death— Stalin’s Death—1953 Series of “reformers” and conservatives: Nikit Nikita Kruschev—1953-1964 1964 (more (more localized control of agriculture and industry, less repressive policies, less control of soviet satellite countries, aggressive Cold War policy, first Soviet leader to visit U.S.) 8 3/24/2010 Gorbachev – 1990 Nobel Peace Prize Winner Leonid Brezhnev—1964-1982 (Conservative) Yuri Andropov—1982-1984 (R (Reformer) Konstantin Chernenko—1984-85 (Conservative) Mikhail Gorbachev -1985-1991 (Big Time Reformer) Gorbachev Perestroika Perestroika (restructuring) --some --some privatization (authorization of worker-owned communes, use of workerstate resources to provide managers state resources to provide managers of stateof state-run businesses to privatize --less --less centralized control of state-run stateindustries Gorbachev Glasnost (openness)— Glasnost (openness)— --freedom --freedom of information, dissent, opinion— opinion—loosening up of discussion in the Soviet Union (previously in the Soviet Union (previously relegated relegated to the “Samizdat” media Perestroika Perestroika and Glasnost open door for massive revolt in Soviet Union 9 3/24/2010 Gorbachev Gorbachev Softening of Foreign Policy: --greater --greater autonomy for Soviet satellite states, withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe Afghanistan and Eastern Europe --INF --INF (Intermediate Nuclear Forces) Treaty with US in 1988—eliminates 1988— midmid-range nuclear missiles Democratic Democratic Reform -- gets rid of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet --creates lower chamber of legislature: creates lower chamber of legislature: Congress Congress of People’s Deputies --creates --creates office of the Presidency, elected by the people’s representatives in the Congress of People’s Deputies --Gorbachev --Gorbachev becomes first President of the Soviet Union in 1990 Gorbachev Gorbachev American American conservatives give Ronald Reagan credit for break-up of Soviet breakUnion Massive Massive U.S. nuclear build-up in early build1980 1980s leads to need for USSR to USSR engage in massive build-up; by 1987, build1515-17% of Russia’s GNP is spent on military; Communist Communist Party choice of Gorbachev seen by some as capitulation to US. Most Most other observers cite internal problems leading to reform government, and other forces leading to break-up of Soviet Union to break of Soviet Union 10 3/24/2010 Gorbachev Gorbachev’s Gorbachev’s reforms unleash massive amount of demand for change: --economic --economic troubles --desire for freedom --nationalist --nationalist impulse in Eastern European and southern Muslim regions Revolutions in Soviet Satellites 19891989-90 Without Without Soviet force to threaten people, popular uprisings result in the demise of Communist rule in: the demise of Communist rule in: Poland, Romania, East Germany, Yugoslavia, Romania, Czechoslavakia, Czechoslavakia, Hungary, Bulgaria BreakBreak-up of Soviet Union BreakBreak-up of Soviet Union Chaos--food Chaos--food shortages, riots by nationalists in Azerbaijan, Lithuania, and other ethnic regions Communist conspirators abduct Communist conspirators abduct Gorbachev Gorbachev at resort in Crimea – ultimatum to resign and appoint Gennady Yanayev as successor Members Members of Congress of People’s Deputies demand Gorbachev’s release HardHard-liners order military siege of Congress of People’s Deputies Tanks Tanks roll through Moscow—stopped Moscow— by thousands of citizens who join by thousands of citizens who join leader leader of CDP (and President of the Russian Republic)—Boris Yeltsin Republic)— 11 3/24/2010 Lesson about Revolutions Who Killed The Soviet Union? Alexis Alexis de Tocqueville (explaining the overthrow of the French Monarchy in the late 18th Century): The The Mujahideen -- defeat of Soviets in Afghanistan Jimmy Jimmy Carter – funding of Mujahideen, Mujahideen, encouragement of dissidents Ronald Reagan hard line on Soviet Union Ronald Reagan – hard line on Soviet Union, nuclear arms build-up buildThe The Soviet System – loss of morale Mikhail Mikhail Gorbachev – opens doors to mass revolt The The Soviet People – who gradually overthrew Soviet Union in a number of ways “The “The most dangerous time for a bad government is when it begins to reform itself.” PostPost-Communist Russia Yeltsin Yeltsin – 1992 – Becomes President of Russia until Constitution can be written and elections held Gets Parliament to allow him Gets Parliament to allow him absolute absolute power for a year After After Constitution is ratified in 1993, Yeltsin is elected President of Russia Radical Radical privatization ensues. Examples of Sales of State Enterprises in 1991 Gazprom Gazprom -- $200 million Norilsk Norilsk Nickel -- $170 million Yukos Yukos -- $309 million Sidanko Sidanko -- $130 million Weapons Weapons factories sold for as little as $3 million 12 3/24/2010 PostPost-Communist Russia Boris Boris Yeltsin Elected Elected President of Russia in 1991 with 57% of the vote In In late 1991, gets the Congress of People’s Deputies to grant him “special People’s powers” Enables Enables Yeltsin to play lead role in writing of new constitution; Allows Allows Yeltsin to initiate radical new economic program without checks and balances balances PostPost-Communist Russia Yeltsin’s Yeltsin’s Program: “Shock Therapy” Massive, Massive, rapid privatization of state enterprises; Approach is to sell enterprises at cheap Approach is to sell enterprises at cheap prices prices to the NOMENKLATURA and APPARATCHIKS— APPARATCHIKS—with some of the capital provided by the government Part Part of justification—to prevent the justification— nation’s industry from being bought up by foreign investors Yeltsin Yeltsin Economic Economic Reforms Massive Massive privatization (“shock therapy”) End End of price controls Reduction Reduction of social welfare programs Corruption Economic Economic decline (GDP falls by 50%) Health Health care system crumbles Depression, Depression, alcoholism, poorer nutrition Life Life expectancies shorten—from 64 to 57 shorten— years for men, from 74 to 71 for women 1993 1993 confrontation with the Parliament – Parliament produces budget that refuses to take austerity measures demanded by Yeltsin measures demanded by Yeltsin Yeltsin Yeltsin declares “special powers,” Parliament votes overwhelmingly to impeach him Yeltsin Yeltsin forces Parliament out by having army shell the White House 13 3/24/2010 Yeltsin December December 1993 – New Constitution approved with stronger presidency, and new legislative body: The State Duma Duma First First elections for State Duma: Dec. 1993 Duma: Russian Russian Government “Dual Executive” system: Something between pure Presidential system as in U.S. and pure Parliamentary System as in Britain System as in Britain Governing power divided between President and Prime Minister As in France… But Russian President is much more powerful – Prime Minister is weak Invasion Chechnya— Invasion of Chechnya—1994 First First Chechen War –1994-1996 1994Second Second Chechen War –1999-2000—Russia 1999-2000— regains control of Chechnya Ch Chechnyan Chechnyan separatism and episodes of terrorism remain an issue in Russia Russian Government Legislative Legislative Branch: – Federal Assembly, consisting of – Federation Council and State Duma – Replaces old Parliament which had consisted of Congress of People’s Deputies and Supreme Soviet under new 1993 Constitution 14 3/24/2010 Federation Council Federation Council—like our Senate, represents Council— each “oblast” equally: 178 representatives representing 89 oblasts Like our Senate before 1913—the members are are chosen by the regional legislatures—often legislatures— complaints that Federation Council is elitist and a “rubber stamp” of the President’s decisions Powers of the Duma Passes Passes laws Can Can override veto by the Federation Council by a 2/3 margin Can dissolve the “government” di th Can Can approve or reject President’s nominee for Prime Minister Can Can impeach the President DUMA Duma—like our House of Representatives. 450 members Half elected by proportional representation; half elected by single representation; half elected by singlemember districts But unlike in our system, the DUMA has most of the say in the creation of laws Powers of the Federation Council Must Must approve laws regarding budgets Ratifies Ratifies treaties Approves changes in federal borders Approves Approves declarations of martial law Decides Decides matters involving use of Russian military outside borders Appoints Appoints judges 15 3/24/2010 Prime Minister Appointed Appointed by President, with approval by the State Duma If If Duma turns down three straight Presidential appointees for Prime Minister Presidential appointees for Prime Minister, it dissolves the government and causes new elections President Elected Elected by the people RunRun-off if no candidate receives 50% of the vote Li Limited to 2 four-year terms ourElections Elections free and fair? Prime Minister powers determines the basic directions of the Government policy; determines presents presents to the President proposals on the structure and functions of the central institutions of the executive branch; nominates nominates the vice prime ministers, federal ministers and other officers and presents them to the President; represents the government as an institution in foreign represents relations and inside the country; heads the sessions of the Government and has the right of heads decisive vote; signs the decrees and executive orders of the government; signs systematically informs the President about the Government systematically activities; Presidential Powers Can Can issue edicts Appoints Appoints Prime Minister, nominates judges of the Constitutional Court (with Federation Council approval), must approve Prime Minister’s must approve Prime Minister’s appointees appointees for ministry posts Can Can dissolve Duma and call for new elections Veto Veto power (can be overridden by 2/3 vote in Duma) Duma) 16 3/24/2010 Presidential Powers Can Can declare martial law or state of emergency, with Fed. Council’s approval According to our textbook, it’s a According to our textbook it “SUPERPRESIDENCY” “SUPERPRESIDENCY” But, But, now that Putin is Prime Minister, is it? In In reality, power lies with most important leader of the dominant political party Vladimir Putin JUDICIARY Constitutional Court— Constitutional Court—unlike Soviet Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court has power of JUDICIAL REVIEW. Can overturn laws based on massive list of Can overturn laws based on massive list of the the people’s rights (47 items with everything from freedom of speech to protection from being subject to medical experiments without consent). Nominated Nominated by President to 12-year terms 12- PUTIN Became Became acting President upon Boris Yeltsin’s resignation in 1999 Elected Elected on the “Unity Party” line in 2000 First First decree pardoned Yeltsin from corruption charges corruption Is Is popular for improving nation’s security and power, improving nation’s economy Criticized Criticized for grabbing power and building personal “cult of personality.” 17 3/24/2010 PUTIN AND FEDERALISM POWER GRAB: Issued edict: Getting rid of elections in the oblasts, and making the heads of governments presidential appointees Can be removed by the President Supervised by Putin appointees PutinPutin-Tensions With The West Desire Desire of Putin to use anti-US sentiment antias rallying point Resurgence Resurgence of Soviet economy and the politics of oil politics of oil Dispute Dispute over Iraq and Iran policy Plans Plans for US missiles in Europe PUTIN Oil Oil boom spurs dramatic economic improvement – 7% average annual growth of GDP between 2000 and 2007; Lax environmental policies; Lax environmental policies; Support Support of Russian separatist groups in neighboring countries; Rejects Rejects Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty in 2007 (which since 1989 had limited numbers of tanks, soldiers, weapons in Europe) Putin and Freedom of the Press Putin Putin government begins crackdown on the media almost immediately after coming to office; 2001— 2001—NTV taken over by Gazprom First First of several takeovers of media outlets by stateby state-friendly corporations; Journalist Journalist charged with treason for criticizing Chechnya policy Under Under these threat, media outlets have had to bend to will of the government 18 3/24/2010 Putin— Putin—Silencing Media and other Critics But But the notion that there was a “free press” before Putin is questionable: “Th “The breaking of private media empires since 2000 merely stopped businessmen from using television and newspapers to impose their own views.” – U.S. News and World Report article from 2006 Putin crackdown (continued) 2006— 2006—Andrei Koslov, senior official at Koslov, Russian central bank and whistleblower on government money laundering, shot dead in Moscow in Moscow 2007--Yuri 2007--Yuri Shchekochikhin – dissident journalist, dies at 53 of mysterious illness Deaths Deaths of Journalists: 2006--Anna 2006--Anna Politkovskaya shot dead in Moscow 2004--US 2004--US editor of Forbes' Russian edition Paul Klebnikov shot dead in Moscow 2006 Leading journalist Vladislav 2006--Leading journalist Vladislav Listyev shot shot dead dead in Moscow 2006--Poisoning 2006--Poisoning death in England of Alexander Litvinenko Shooting Shooting of Russia expert Paul Joyal in Maryland, who exposed Litvinenko story (he survived) PUTIN--Elections PUTIN--Elections 2007— 2007—United Russia wins 315 of 450 seats in Duma—over 99% of vote in Duma— Chechnya Government officials seen filling out Government officials seen filling out ballots ballots TV TV Stations taken over by government Those Those not are subject to intimidation, fines, etc. 19 3/24/2010 Dmitri Medvedev Medvedev Putin’s handPutin’s hand-picked successor Medvedev Medvedev wins March 2008 Presidential election with nearly 71% of the vote 71% of the vote First First move: Taps Putin as the Prime Minister Questions Questions as to where power really lies Medvedev – Domestic Policies Medvedev – Domestic Policies Civil Civil Service reform to address corruption issues “Historical “Historical Truth Commission” to contend against negative historical image of Russia Investigation of state Investigation of state-connected corporations corporations Privatization Privatization of remaining state-owned stateenterprises Pushed Pushed for and signed law creating political process for choosing members of the Constitutional Court Commission Commission formed to encourage technological innovation Economic Economic crisis of 2008-9 Worse than 2008ours because of drop in oil prices Medvedev Medvedev – policy like our stimulus policy --Huge government investments in Huge government investments in technological technological innovation – universal access to broadband internet, improvement of manufacturing technology, creation of a “Russian silicone valley,” improvements in telecommunications, tax breaks for investments in innovation, etc. 20 3/24/2010 Medvedev – Foreign Policies August August 2008 – War in Georgia Recognition Recognition of South Ossetia as independent state Planned to counter U.S. ABM’s in Eastern Europe Planned to counter U.S. ABM in Eastern Europe with with a new mobile ballistic missile system and radar jamming technology Iran Iran is a major trading partner Reluctance Reluctance to join U.S. in condemning Iranian nuclear development But But may play a key role in Iran policy Working with Obama on elimination of nukes Workin 21 ...
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