Lecture3

Lecture3 - 01.15.10 Lecture 3: Cellular building Blocks...

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01.15.10 Lecture 3: Cellular building Blocks - Proteins
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Molecules in the cell Most essential molecules of the cell are known Pathways of synthesis and breakdown are known for most Chemical energy drives biosynthesis Organization of molecules in cells: 1. Atoms 2. Small molecules 3. Macromolecules 4. Supramolecular aggregates
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Atoms 95% of a cell’s dry weight is C (50%), O(20%), H (10%), N (10%), P (4%), S (1%) Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Zn are each present at less than 1%.
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Small molecules (MW = 100 - 1000) Cells are 70% water, nearly 30% carbon compounds Molecules are covalently bonded atoms, covalent bonds result from sharing electrons and depend on valence (C: +4, N: -3, O: -2, H:+1)
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Covalent bonds Covalent bonds form the backbones of molecules. Electrons are shared between atoms Single bonds allow rotation, double bonds are rigid
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There are four main classes of small molecules Amino acids Subunits of proteins 20 major types of amino acids Side groups of amino acids dictate protein structure (non-polar, polar, and charged subgroups)
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Nucleotides Base (adenine, cytosine, thymosine, guanine, Uracil) + sugar + phosphate Subunits of DNA and RNA ATP - the main energy source There are four main classes of small molecules
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molecules
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Lecture3 - 01.15.10 Lecture 3: Cellular building Blocks...

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