Economic globalization: free movement of goods has brought free movement of workers as well. Borders are much more porous as many Western countries use guest worker programs, either legally or illegally. The changing nature of terrorism and the terrorist organization means, for liberals, that states must take a more cooperative approach in order to combat it. A liberal approach to Pape’s view can be found in the work of Max Abrahms: criticizes Pape’s analysis based on too narrow a number of cases. Pape, acc to A, only looks at major successes, like Hizbollah driving the US from Beirut. When more cases are involved, terrorism looks far less successful. Abrahms emphasizes an important distinction – limited goals vs maximalist goals. Limited goals include the expulsion of an enemy from a territory or some form of limited concessions. Maximalist goals include the destruction of the enemy. Only groups with limited goals have ever achieved any success and only when they have focused their
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