The criminal justice system is racist In The Color of Justice (1996), Samuel Walker, Cassia Spohn, and Miriam DeLone avoid what critics see as the mistake of treating the complex problem of racial discrimination as if it could be divided into two simple extremes. They say 1. “The criminal justice system is neither completely free of racial bias nor systematically biased.” Drawing from hundreds of studies of race and criminal justice, Walker and his colleagues take the middle ground. They argue that racial/ethnic groups are treated more harshly than whites at some stages in the system but no differently from whites at other stages. 2. Solid evidence of discrimination exists in many stages of the criminal justice process, including the police use of deadly force and the application of the death penalty. 3.
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