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Chapter 8- METABOLISM

Chapter 8- METABOLISM - CHAPTER 8 Chemistry of life is...

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CHAPTER 8 - Chemistry of life is organized into metabolic pathways - Organisms transform energy - The energy transformations of life are subject to two laws of thermodynamics - Organisms live at the expense of free energy - ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions - Metabolism: catabolism, anabolism - Enzymes: biological catalysts, usually proteins - Regulation of pathways of reactions Thermodynamics: describes the movement of heat; can be generalized to movement of nearly all forms of energy - First law: energy is always conserved. - Second law: entropy (randomness) is always increased. (Both laws have several caveats) Consider the system : open vs. closed - As always, any system tends to move to a state of lower energy. To incorporate the two laws, define the Gibbs free energy, G: G = H – TS when H is the enthalpy (heat), S is the entropy, and T is the temperature of the system. - Or, for a system comparing final and initial states (by definition, always final – initial): ΔG = ΔH – TΔS for an isothermal transformation.
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